Учебно-методическое пособие по обучению студентов аннотированию специализированных текстов на английском языке для студентов 2 курса - davaiknam.ru o_O
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Учебно-методическое пособие по обучению студентов аннотированию специализированных - страница №1/4


МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ І НАУКИ, МОЛОДІ ТА СПОРТУ УКРАЇНИ


ТАВРІЙСЬКИЙ НАЦІОНАЛЬНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ

ІМЕНІ В.І. ВЕРНАДСЬКОГО


кафедра іноземних мов природничонаукового профілю


Єрмоленко Оксана Володимирівна

Навчально-методичний посібник з навчання студентів анотуванню спеціалізованих текстів англійською мовою
для студентів 2 курсу денної форми навчання та

2 курсу заочної форми навчання напряму підготовки


6.140103 «туризм»

освітньо – кваліфікаційного рівня «бакалавр»

галузі знань 1401 «Сфера обслуговування»

Сімферополь 2012




Министерство образования и науки, молодежи и спорта Украины

ТАВРИЧЕСКИЙ НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

имени В. И. ВЕРНАДСКОГО


кафедра иностранных языков естественнонаучного профиля
Ермоленко Оксана Владимировна

Учебно-методическое пособие по обучению студентов аннотированию специализированных текстов

на английском языке

для студентов 2 курса дневной формы обучения и

2 курса заочной формы обучения

направления подготовки 6.140103

«туризм»

образовательно – квалификационного уровня «бакалавр»

отрасли знаний 1401 «Сфера обслуживания»


Симферополь 2012


Рекомендовано к печати заседанием кафедры

от 26 мая 2011 г.


протокол № 8

Рекомендовано к печати учебно-методическим советом ТНУ от 22.12.2011


протокол № 2

Учебно-методическое пособие по обучению аннотированию специализированных текстов содержит теоретические и практические материалы по составлению аннотаций специализированной оригинальной литературы. Приводятся образцы аутентичных англоязычных аннотаций, рефератов и аннотаций к конкретным англоязычным или русскоязычным специализированным текстам.


СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

ВВЕДЕНИЕ 6
РАЗДЕЛ 1 Назначение и содержание аннотационных текстов 7
РАЗДЕЛ 2 WHAT IS AN ANNOTATION ? 22
РАЗДЕЛ 3 Специализированные аутентичные тексты 26
ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ ………………………………………………………….42
Список использованной и рекомендуемой литературы 43
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 45
ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Современная концепция развития высшего образования предусматривает необходимость подготовки молодых специалистов, способных использовать мировые достижения науки в различных областях знаний, владеющих основами методики научного исследования и, как результат, умеющих пользоваться научной специальной литературой в целом (работа с отраслевыми справочниками, статьями, специализированными научно-техническими журналами, материалами научных конгрессов, конференций, симпозиумов и т.п.). Данные виды учебной и научной работы требуют от студентов владения навыками оформления результатов выполненной научной работы в частности.

Научить студентов пользоваться иноязычной литературой по специальности в профессиональных целях и уметь высказываться на иностранном языке по вопросам, связанным с будущей профессией, – одна из основных задач, на которую ориентировано обучение в неязыковом вузе.

Актуальность представленного пособия обусловливается потребностями будущих специалистов в овладении навыками и умениями аннотационного и реферативного перевода, что является одним из наиболее важных видов работы в процессе обучения иностранному языку студентов неязыковых специальностей и ведет к значительному повышению уровня знаний иностранного языка выпускниками неязыковых вузов. Аннотирование является частным видом реферативной обработки источников информации.

Наиболее актуальным из указанных видов работы с иностранной специальной литературой в плане практического использования иностранного языка как средства оперативного извлечения информации является реферирование и аннотирование зарубежных источников научной информации, проводимое в письменной форме как на иностранном, так и на родном языке. Целенаправленное обучение реферированию иностранной научной литературы представляет собой эффективное средство повышения профессиональной направленности в обучении иностранным языкам.

Учебно-методическое пособие по обучению аннотированию специализированных текстов содержит теоретические и практические материалы по составлению аннотаций специализированной оригинальной литературы. Приводятся образцы аутентичных англоязычных аннотаций, рефератов и аннотаций к конкретным англоязычным или русскоязычным специализированным текстам.


РАЗДЕЛ 1

НАЗНАЧЕНИЕ И СОДЕРЖАНИЕ АННАТАЦИОННЫХ ТЕКСТОВ
Особое значение при обучении иностранному языку в высшей школе придаётся овладению студентами основами методики научного исследования и, как результат, формированию умений и навыков работы с научной специальной литературой в целом (работа с отраслевыми справочниками, статьями, специализированными научно-техническими журналами, материалами научных конгрессов, конференций, симпозиумов и т.п.), так же как и навыками оформления результатов выполненной научной работы в частности.

В числе требований, предъявляемых студентам в процессе обучения научно-исследовательской деятельности, является умение составления аннотационных текстов, столь необходимых для оформления результатов научного труда, что обуславливает актуальность усвоения студентами и молодыми учёными навыков составления аннотаций (создание «вторичных» текстов). Аннатационные тексты как компрессия научной информации необходимы в современной научной деятельности. В частности, неотъемлемым требованием к оформлению результатов научных исследований в отечественных и зарубежных изданиях на сегодняшний день является предоставление авторских аннотаций на нескольких языках, в том числе на английском языке. Как правило, англоязычный вариант аннотации нужен для читателей, не знающих русский или украинский язык, поскольку английский язык считается международным языком для научных публикаций. Даже при отсутствии полного текста на английском языке аннотация даст представление о главной идее статьи и позволит читателю связаться с автором статьи или заказать статью самостоятельно.

Сущность аннотирования заключается в максимальном сокращении объема источника информации при существенном сохранении его основного содержания. Принципиальной основой для такой компрессии информации является избыточность языка и отсутствие однозначного соответствия между содержанием мысли и формой речевого произведения, выражающего эту мысль (Маркушевская Л.П., Цапаева Ю.А.).

Реферат и аннотация относятся к вторичным документальным источникам научной информации. Это те документы, в которых сообщаются сведения о первичных документах. Преобразование информации заключается в процессе изучения каждого первичного документа или определенной их совокупности, например, сборника статей, и подготовке информации, отражающей наиболее существенные элементы этих документов. На основе использования вторичных документов комплектуются информативные издания, такие как реферативные журналы, справочная литература, научные переводы и др. Аннотация, как правило, лишь перечисляет вопросы, которые освещены в первоисточнике, не раскрывая самого содержания этих вопросов.



Аннотация (от лат. annotatio – замечание) – краткая характеристика содержания произведения печати или рукописи. Она представляет собой предельно сжатую описательную характеристику первоисточника. В ней в обобщенном виде раскрывается тематика публикации без полного раскрытия ее содержания. Аннотация дает ответ на вопрос, о чем говорится в первичном источнике информации.

Аннотации по содержанию и целевому назначению могут быть справочные и рекомендательные. Справочные аннотации раскрывают тематику документов и сообщают какие-либо сведения о нем, но не дают критической оценки. Рекомендательные аннотации содержат оценку документа с точки зрения его пригодности для определенной категории читателей.

По охвату содержания аннотированного документа и читательского назначения различают общие и специализированные аннотации. Общие аннотации характеризуют документ в целом и рассчитаны на широкий круг читателей. Специализированные аннотации раскрывают документ лишь в определенных аспектах, интересующих узкого специалиста. Они могут быть абсолютно краткими, состоящими из нескольких слов или небольших фраз, и развернутыми до 20-30 строчек, но и в этом случае, в отличие от реферата, дают в сжатой форме только самые основные положения и выводы документов.

В аннотации указывают лишь существенные признаки содержания документа, т.е. те, которые позволяют выявить его научное и практическое значение и новизну, отличить его от других, близких к нему по тематике и целевому назначению. При составлении аннотации не следует пересказывать содержание документов (выводы, рекомендации, фактический материал). Нужно свести к минимуму использование сложных оборотов, употребление личных и указательных местоимений.

Общие требования, предъявляемые к написанию аннотаций:


  • учет назначения аннотации (от этого зависит полнота охвата и содержание заключительной части);

  • объем аннотации (от 500 печатных знаков или в среднем 50 слов до 2000 печатных знаков с учетом пробелов);

  • соблюдение логичности структуры (может отличаться от порядка изложения в оригинале);

  • соблюдение языковых особенностей аннотации.

Основные рекомендации по стилевому изложению основных положений оригинала:

  • излагайте мысли просто, ясно, кратко;

  • избегайте слишком длинных предложений;

  • избегайте повторов, в том числе и заглавия статьи;

  • используйте общепринятые сокращения;

  • употребляйте безличные конструкции («рассматривается…, анализируется…, сообщается…») и пассивный залог;

  • избегайте использования прилагательных, наречий, вводных слов, не влияющих на содержание;

  • используйте обобщающие слова и словосочетания, обеспечивающие логические связи между отдельными частями высказываний типа «как показано…», «…, однако», «следовательно…» и т.д.



Образцы аннотаций:
1. Алексашкин И.В., Григоренко А.Е., Горбунов Р.В., Хижняк Ю.С., Паренюк Е.Ю., Репецкая А.И. Мощность экспозиционной дозы гамма-излучения на территории Ботанического сада Таврического национального университета им. В.И. Вернадского. В работе представлены результаты исследований мощности экспозиционной дозы гамма-излучения на территории Ботанического сада ТНУ им. В.И. Вернадского. Выявлены закономерности её изменения.

Aleksashkin I.V., Grigorenko A.E., Gorbunov R.V., Hizhnjak J.S., Parenjuk E.J., Repetskaya A.I. The power of the exposition gammar-radiation doze of the Botanical garden territory of Taurida national V.I. Vernadsky university.

The article researches the capacity of the exposition doze of gammar-radiation power on the territory of the Botanical garden of TNU. Some laws of its changes are revealed.
2. ЦОЙ О. М. ПРИРОДНЫЕ ФАКТОРЫ ВОЗНИКНОВЕНИЯ ПОЖАРОВ В ЛЕСАХ ЮГА ДАЛЬНЕГО ВОСТОКА.

На основе картографических материалов и теории атмосферного электричества предложена концепция возгорания лесов Дальнего Востока. Показана статистическая связь сроков наступления катастрофических природных явлений (наводнений, засух) с моментом импульса зональной циркуляции атмосферы.

Ключевые слова: лесной пожар, наводнение, радон, сейсмичность, магнитострикция.

On the basis of cartographic materials and the theory of atmospheric electricity, the concept of forest flash fires in the Far East is suggested. A statistical correlation between the onset time of disastrous natural phenomena (floods, droughts) and the time of impulse of the zonal atmospheric circulation is demonstrated.

Keywords: forest fire, flood, radon, seismicity, magnetostriction.
3. Abstract (Summary)

Laser lidar. “Laser Focus World”, 2003, v. 46, №3, p. 45.

The text focuses on the use of laser-based lidar in oceanography. The ability of lidar to penetrate into the ocean surface to obtain specific data in murky coastal waters is specially mentioned. Particular attention is given to the advantage of laser-based lidars over passive

satellite-based systems iN obtaining signals not being contaminated by the water column or the bottom. A typical lidar system is described with emphasis on the way it works. This information may be of interest to research teams engaged in studying shallow waters.


4. Raija Komppula, Saila Saraniemi. Organic Images of Finland in European Markets. Tourism Today – Fall, 2004 .

ABSTRACT:

The objective of this study was to examine spontaneous destination images of Finland in the seven main marketing areas of the Finnish Tourist Board in Europe. This study also aimed to find potential differences in destination images between different countries of origin and to chart the existing positive images. The study is based on 2001 personal interviews. The images of Finland represented in this report represent a generally prevailing image of Finland in the country in question. Nature is a strong though not overwhelming element in the image of Finland in continental Europe, both for those who have visited Finland and those who have not. Swedes and Russians, however, perceive Finland more as a country of people, life, culture and various places to visit. Images of Finland vary even between continental European countries. The image of Finland as a cold, northern, snowy winter destination is most common in France. Germans most often mentioned lakes and forests. As a whole, winter elements are associated with Finland more often than summer elements (e.g. the midnight sun). In addition to nature, especially those who have visited Finland often mention Finnish people and hospitality, too.

Key words: destination image, organic image, image of Finland

INTRODUCTION

Tourists’ destination image has been one of the most frequently investigated topics studied by tourism researchers during the last decades. According to Gartner (2000) image is believed to be the key underlying factor influencing traveller’s choice of destinations. Destination marketers are using several attempts to promote image. The aim of image promotion is that target group receives the message been sent and as a result changes buying behaviour. (Ashworth and Voogd 1990). The most receptive target markets in short term are the travellers with more positive images, since they are most likely to visit the area (Leisen 2001). It is anyway also important to find out negative or wrong mental images among the target group to identify the possible barriers for travelling to a destination. Especially destinations attempting to expand their markets should pay extra attention to non-visitors and their mental images. (Baloglu and McCleary 1999b).
5. Konstantinos Andriotis. Revising Porter’s Five Forces Model for Application in the Travel and Tourism Industry.

ABSTRACT


This paper takes a new look at Porter’s five competitive forces model. In doing so, this work proposes a new competitive forces model centered on the travel and tourism industry that includes two additional forces, namely information technologies and government regulations, and adds an additional element to the buyers’ perspective, namely the power of intermediaries. This model is applied in the case of Greece and, although several limitations, from the findings it is proven as capable of explaining the competitive forces that affect the level of competition in the Greek travel and tourism industry.

Keywords: Porter’s competitive forces, information technology, intermediaries, government regulation, Greece, travel and tourism.

INTRODUCTION

Several structural elements within the business environment affect the level of competition in an industry. To these ends, there is continuing interest by academics and practitioners to study the totality of environmental influences or conditioning that are outside an organization’s boundary (Smith et al. 1980), and various models have been proposed and discussed (e.g. Henderson 1976; Smith et al. 1980) that examine the external environmental forces that impact on organisations. However, up to now the most significant and dominant paradigm in the literature of industry analysis is Porter’s (1980) competitive forces model. This framework proposes five potential forces of industry competition that have changed the way that managers, consultants and practitioners view the competitive environment (Slater & Olson 2002) and determine the profitability and the degree of attractiveness of a given industry, as has been reported by Blair and Buesseler (1998) for the medical group industry and by Thurlby (1998) for the electricity supply industry. Porter’s five competitive forces that constitute strong threats to a company’s profitability and when act favorably can establish the long run profitability of a given industry are (Hill & Jones 1995, 70-81; Porter 1980): Konstantinos Andriotis

1. The rivalry among established companies that is a function of three main factors: industry competitive structure; demand conditions, and, the height of exit barriers in the industry.

2. The threat of new potential entrants that is a function of the height of barriers to entry that depend on three main sources: brand loyalty, absolute cost advantages, and economies of scale.

3. The pressure of substitute products that can limit the price a company can charge for its products and services.

4. The bargaining power of buyers. Buyers are able to force down prices or they may demand higher quality and better services which may increase a company’s operating costs.

5. The bargaining power of suppliers. Suppliers are able to force up the price of their products or reduce the quality of products supplied which may decrease a company’s overall profitability.
6. Tourism Today* - Fall 2004 - Full Paper

The Impact of Cultural Festivals on Tourism

Razaq Raj

r.raj@leedsmet.ac.uk



ABSTRACT

This paper aims to investigate the impact of festivals concerning cultural tourism regarding the host community. The literature research in this paper focuses on an area of study related to cultural tourism and the role of festivals in the creation of opportunities for community orientated events and festivals. The findings of this research show us that festivals have contributed in the development of cultural tourism. Festivals attract culture tourists to local community events to promote enriching exchanges between tourists and resident. It was found in the case studies of Edinburgh Festival and Leeds West Indian Carnival that festivals have become a major tourist attraction for the local, regional and international visitors.



Key Words: Impact, festivals, culture, tourism, local communities

INTRODUCTION

Today festivals are considered to contribute significantly to the cultural and economic development wealth of the United Kingdom. Festivals have major impacts on the development of cultural tourism to the host communities. The festival organisers are now using the historical and cultural themes to develop the annual events to attract visitors and create cultural image in the host cities by holding festivals in the community settings. The desire for festivals and events is not specifically designed to address the needs for any one particular group. The hosting of events is often developed because of the tourism and economic opportunities additional to social and cultural benefits. Many researchers have contested that local communities play vital roles in developing tourism through festivals. Events have the potential to generate a vast amount of tourism when they cater to visitors from other generating zones plus the potential for grants, or sponsorships, (Getz, 1997) either by direct or indirect intent. The government now support and promote events as part of their strategies for economic development, nation building and cultural tourism. The events in turn are seen as an important tool for attracting visitors and building the image within different communities. According to Stiernstrand (1996), the economic impact of tourism arises principally from the consumption of tourism products in a geographical area. According to McDonnell, Allen and O’ Toole (1999), tourism related services, which include travel, accommodation, restaurants, shopping are the major beneficiaries of the event.

As far as events and tourism is concerned, the roles and responsibilities of governments as well private sector and society in general have significantly changed over the last decade. The situations have been changed where the state had the key responsibility for tourism development and promotion to a world where the public sector is obliged to reinvent itself by relinquishing its traditional responsibilities and activities in favour of provincial, state and local authorities. This indicates the growing influence on the behaviour of governments and business in general of development of event and tourism industries. This suggests that festivals impact on the host population and stakeholders in a number of ways. These factors are primarily concerned with a plethora of impacts, social, cultural, physical, environmental, political and economic all of which can be both positive and negative. This paper initially reviews literature related to cultural tourism and the role of festivals in the creation of opportunities for community orientated events and festivals which contrast with tourist orientated events which have tenuous links with local communities. Moreover, the paper will argue that community based events and festivals provide an opportunity for the celebration of local identity and community empowerment and create tourism for the local area. The case studies within this paper explore the development of cultural tourism and multicultural festivals and events with the UK, and the positive contribution that these events play in solidifying community relations with development of the cultural tourism.

CULTURAL TOURISM

Cultural tourism is defined by international Cultural Tourism Charter professionals as " Domestic and international tourism continues to be among the foremost vehicles for cultural exchange, providing a personal experience, not only of that which has survived from the past, but of the contemporary life and society of others.." http://www.icomos.org/tourism/charter.html

The culture is an identity and the importance that individual people place on local and national social organizations, such as local governments, education institutions, religious communities, work and leisure. Cultural tourism describes tourist who take part in the cultural activities while away from their home cities. Cultural tourism is that form of tourism whose purpose is to discover heritage sites and cultural monuments on their travels. Keillor (1995) in an address to the White House Conference on Travel & Tourism, best described cultural tourism by saying,

"We need to think about cultural tourism because really there is no other kind of tourism. It's what tourism is...People don't come to America for our airports, people don't come to America for our hotels, or the recreation facilities....They come for our culture: high culture, low culture, middle culture, right, left, real or imagined – they come here to see America." http://www.nasaa-arts.org/artworks/ct_contents.shtml

The theme of culture has grown over the last two decades but no clear definition of culture has been accepted by the community has whole. Culture in modern day terms is seen as a product by governments, large organizations and individual people to develop their own standing in the given market. Wyman states that culture plays important part in the society: "...In an economic climate where we hear so much about crisis in health and education, it is important to remember that culture, too, is an essential element of a healthy society. It's not an either-or situation. Health is necessary for life; culture makes life worth living...." http://www.culturematters.ca/index.html

Moreover, cultural tourism relates to those individual groups of people who travel around the world, individual countries, local communities and individual events that seek to experience heritage, religious and art sites to develop knowledge of different communities way of life. This can include a very wide range of cultural tourist experiences. It can include, for example, performing arts, festivals, visits to historic sites and monuments, educational tours, museums, natural heritage sites and religious festivals.

DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURAL TOURISM THROUGH FESTIVALS

Festivals have changed over the years, before festivals were associated with key calendar moments, linked specifically to particular seasons and heritage sites. Over the last decade these have been changed and developed upon, there is now a broad and diverse range of festivals events taking place all over the world. Getz (1997, p.1) introduces festivals events as a: “Events constitute one of the most exciting and fastest growing forms of leisure, business, and tourism-related phenomena.” Goldblatt (2002, p.1) introduces festivals events as a: “Kaleidoscope of planned culture, sport, political, and business occasions: from megaevents like Olympics and World fairs to community festivals; from programs of events at parks and attractions to visits by dignitaries and intergovernmental assembles; from small meetings and parties to huge conventions and competitions.” The revolution in festivals has been stimulated through commercial aspect to meet the changing demand of local community groups and increasing business opportunities for the event organizers and local businesses. Festivals play a major part in a city and local community. Festivals are attractive to host communities, because it helps to develop local pride and identity for the local people. In addition, festivals have an important role in the national and host community in context of destination planning, enhancing and linking tourism and commerce. Some aspects of this role include: events as image makers, economic impact generators, tourist attractions, overcoming seasonality, contributing to the development of local communities and businesses, and supporting key industrial sectors.

Festival organizers are now using historical and cultural themes to develop annual events to attract visitors and creating cultural image in the host cities by holding festivals within community settings. Festivals provide an opportunity for the local people to develop and share their culture, which create a sense of values and beliefs held by the individuals in a local community. Festivals provide the tourist the opportunity to see how the local communities celebrate their culture and help the visitors to interact with the host community and help people to enjoy and meet their leisure needs.

The peoples and communities that host the festival provide the visitors with a vibrant and valuable culture. In addition, culture is the personal expression of community heritage, community perspective, it provides cultural opportunities for the visitors to enjoy and experience local illumination and culture. The festivals also provide support to those who pursue economic opportunity related to sharing community culture with the broader world. UNEP (2002) suggest that cultural tourism is boosted through the development of festivals and events. Tourism can add to the vitality of communities in many ways. One example is that events and festivals of which local residents have been the primary participants and spectators are often rejuvenated and developed in response to tourist interest.



IMPACT OF FESTIVALS ON HOST COMMUNITY

Event organizers do not take into account the social and environmental impact into consideration. It is argued that there is a clear need to adopt a holistic approach: “In any location, harmony must be sought between the needs of the visitor, the place and the host community.” (English Heritage, 2000 p.29). Host communities play a major role when running a major sporting event or any other large scale event. Also, sporting events play a major role in host communities. The work of Getz (1997) was concerned with the event manager gaining support and resources from the host area community, while also looking at the local benefits and costs, cultural meanings of their event and also the political factors. If all this is taken into consideration then it can lead to a good event and even a good relationship between events and the local community. A problem a host community may have with the event is the influx of people and it being unable to cope. This may have a knock on effect in terms of traffic congestion, crime and vandalism. Also Smith (1989) tells of how the socio-cultural impacts result from the interaction between ‘hosts’ and ‘guests’. A number of factors may contribute to difficulties in this relationship. The transitory nature of a visit to a historic centre may be too short to allow any understanding to be established. Repeat visits may be more positive in this context. Visitors, especially those on day visits, have temporal constraints and become more intolerant of ‘wasting time’, for example in finding somewhere to park. Spontaneity may break down as ‘hospitality’ becomes a repetitive transaction for the host (Glasson et al 1995, pp.34-5).

The impacts of events can greatly affect the quality of life of the local residents. Therefore, it has been argued that strategies need to be adopted to take into account the social and environmental impacts of festivals into analysis when carrying out economic impact of the each individual event. The event organizers only takes into consideration the economic implications and ignores the residents perceptions, which provide important non-economic dimension for gauging how events benefit or impinge on the host community (Jeong and Faulkner, 1996; Hall, 1992).

Festivals have both positive and negative impacts on their host cities, but emphasis is often focused on the economic analysis. Hall (1992) suggests that the ability of major events perceived to attract economic benefits often provide the official justification for why the event is to be hosted. “Economic analysis of events provides one aspect of why events are held and the effects that they have on a region. However, while many of the economics impacts of events are quite tangible many of the social are not.” (Hall, 1992 p.10) The community festivals now play a significant role in income generation for the local businesses and create tourism for the local area. The festivals are becoming more and more tourist attractions over the last 10 years, which have great economic impact on the host communities. This tradition has changed over the last decade, due to the fame and the size of the event. The event industry has developed over the years, due to the expansion of information technology and media network. The festival organizers now utilize these new communication tools to advertise their event to wider audience. According to McDonnell, Allen and O’ Toole (1999), “The process is speeded up by the technology and the media, which have the power to bring significant local events to a worldwide audience, overcoming the barriers of national and cultural differences.” (1999 p. 54). Festivals now attract visitors from all over the country and including people from other countries. The festival organizers now able to target wider audience through use of technology and media, this has considerable economic impact on the host community, which creates tourist to visit the area and stay longer in the area. Goldblatt believes that “Some communities use these events to boost tourism during the low or off-season and others focus primarily on weekends to appeal to leisure travellers.” (1997 p.7). Economic values are often placed on the benefit of publicity obtained for the event, which may occur before, during and after its occurrence. Column inches and advertising costs are used to quantify such impacts. Boud-Bovy & Lawson, (1998); Key Leisure Markets, (2001) suggested the expenditure in the local economy is more likely to support supplier jobs in tourism-related sectors of the economy rather than create new jobs, however, many other factors will also have an impact. UK Sport (1997) believe that a critical mass of events taking place in a local economy over a sustained period, is more reasonable to suggest that a job creation effect was linked to economic growth through events. Economic impacts may be presented using results of benefit/cost analysis, input/output analysis, and simply economic benefits to local society. Getz’s model (See figure 1.0 below). Getz demonstrates the potential benefits of events.

According to Getz (1997) economic impact assessments often include a multiplier calculation to demonstrate that incremental tourist expenditure has direct, indirect and induced benefits for the local economy. At the most basic level, economic impact analysis techniques estimate average spend per person, multiplied by the total number of visitors/users to determine the direct spending associated and then applied multipliers to estimate secondary or indirect economic effects. The multiplier usually used in tourism impact studies is the “income multiplier” which is basically a coefficient which expresses the amount of income generated in an area by an additional unit of tourist spending. Case studies have been chosen of two outdoor festivals, which take place on an annual basis. The case studies are used to offer discussion points on the hosting of outdoor events and economic impact it brings to the host city. Case studies will compare the economic and cultural tourism impact assessment of Edinburgh Festival and Leeds Caribbean carnival.

According to Getz (1997) economic impact assessments often include a multiplier calculation to demonstrate that incremental tourist expenditure has direct, indirect and induced benefits for the local economy. At the most basic level, economic impact analysis techniques estimate average spend per person, multiplied by the total number of visitors/users to determine the

direct spending associated and then applied multipliers to estimate secondary or indirect economic effects. The multiplier usually used in tourism impact studies is the “income multiplier” which is basically a coefficient which expresses the amount of income generated in an area by an additional unit of tourist spending. Case studies have been chosen of two outdoor festivals, which take place on an annual basis. The case studies are used to offer discussion points on the hosting of outdoor events and economic impact it brings to the host city. Case studies will compare the economic and cultural tourism impact assessment of Edinburgh Festival and Leeds Caribbean carnival.
EDINBURGH FESTIVAL

The Edinburgh Festival has become major calendar event for the city of Edinburgh, the festival has developed cultural tourism and created cultural image for all groups within the community. The city has also long been world-renowned for its rich history, culture and heritage and for hosting leading international events giving it an excellent tourism infrastructure.

The Edinburgh Festival developed since the late 1940s and it has become a major hotspot for the artistic and tourists to enjoy multi-cultural events during the month of August each year. The festival has developed the following programmes over the years to attract visitors from all over the world to demonstrate multi-cultural image. Each summer it is host to the world’s largest arts festival, the Edinburgh International Festival and Fringe Festival which are merely the biggest and best known events from an annual list which includes the Edinburgh Military Tattoo, Hogmanay celebrations, International science festival, International book festival, Jazz festival and Film festival. The Edinburgh Festival provides a phenomenal six weeks of arts and culture in the city.

Festival Director Brian McMaster said: “We are delighted at the response to this year's programmes. Reviews have been excellent, but, more importantly, our audiences are clearly having a very good time, and are trying out a wide range of familiar and less familiar events.”

http://www.edinburgh-festivals.com/festivals.cfm?id=International

The Edinburgh International Festival has developed significantly over the years, yet the founders' original intentions are closely reflected in the current aims and objectives This highlights the point that even though Edinburgh is a successful festival destination at present to remain competitive in the global marketplace it must continually invest in itself to retain and improve on its position. It has been estimated that tourism is worth over i1.1 billion per year to Edinburgh and supports over 27,000 jobs according to the Edinburgh Convention Bureau (ECB) and of this business tourism and conferencing accounts for around 120 million annually with its value increasing year on year. The Edinburgh Festival attracts tourist from all over the world, over the last decade cultural tourism has increased in large numbers. According to official Edinburgh International Festival Audience Research (2002): “43% of the Festival's audience comes from Edinburgh and the Lothians, 18% from the rest of Scotland, 21% from the rest of the UK and 17% from overseas. Visitors stay an average of 8 nights in Edinburgh.”

The success of Edinburgh as a festival destination can be attributed to a combination of factors. The visitors come to Edinburgh either specifically for the International Festival or its unique heritage and cultural history, Edinburgh is also renown for it conferencing destination.

A report carried out by the Business Tourism Forum and Business Tourism Advisory Committee highlights Edinburgh as a strong business tourism destination but detected certain infrastructure weaknesses including:



  • Insufficient number of direct flights and the lack of a direct transport link into the city centre.

  • Inadequate exhibition space attached to the Edinburgh International Conference Centre.

  • Need for an additional 400-500 bedroom hotel to act as a headquarters hotel.

Moreover, this increasing value of business tourism to the city can be attributed to Edinburgh becoming the UK’s leading conferencing destination according to the International Convention and Congress Association (ICCA). In 1995 Edinburgh was outside ICCA’s destination league table’s top 20, yet jumped to 13th position in 1998 and in 2001 was placed 12th. This steady rise followed the opening of the EICC on 17 September 1995.

LEEDS WEST INDIAN CARNIVAL

The Caribbean carnival is an annual event celebrated in the city since the early 1960s. The carnival is one of the oldest Caribbean carnivals in Europe. In its earlier days the Leeds West Indian Carnival used to go into the city centre, that tradition changed during the eighty's. The carnival has out grown its original setting since the early eighty's and now it take place around the local communities of Chapletown and Harehills. The carnival has created multi-cultural spirit for people of all races and nationalities attending the event during the August bank holiday each year since 1967. Carnival founder Arthur France said: “This continues to be one of this city’s most important and enjoyable family attractions." “Our events in the run up to Carnival Day provide something for everyone as well as giving the whole city the chance to come together in one big party.” (Yorkshire Evening Post, 2002). Behind the colour and music of the carnival there is a deeper meaning rooted in the experiences of Caribbean people arriving in England around a time of great change in the late 1950s and early 1960s. So it was a search for identity, for community and belonging that led to the carnival being developed in the early 1960s in the area of Notting Hill in London. As stated by the William Stewart the founder of the initial Caribbean carnival in this country. “This great festival began initially from the energies of black immigrants from the Caribbean, in particular, Trinidad, where the Carnival tradition is very strong, and from people living locally, who dreamed of creating a festival to bring together the people of Notting Hill, most of whom were facing racism, lack of working opportunities and poor housing conditions resulting in a general suppression of good self-esteem.”

Source: http://www.mynottinghill.co.uk/nottinghilltv/carnival-countdown.htm

The carnival has created that platform for the Caribbean people to come together and share their social and cultural differences with the local community from numerous backgrounds. It is about people coming together and people having fun.

The attendance at the event varies from 10,000 to 100,000. The attendance at the actual carnival site is 80,000, as procession leaves the Potternewton Park the numbers of carnival watchers grows in large numbers. Over the last ten years the tourist to the area has grown in large numbers, because the event itself has attracted tourism to the area by its glorious and characteristic of the event. However, the other element is the image of the carnival expressing an invisible side of local and international culture being developed by the event over the years to attract more and more visitors to the area.

The carnival has created a very special image for the city of Leeds, because it has brought local community together and enhance the local image which has attract tourism from all over the country and people come to the carnival as far as Caribbean Islands. Carnival founder Arthur France said: “This continues to be one of this city’s most important and enjoyable family attractions. Our events in the run up to Carnival Day provide something for everyone as well as giving the whole city the chance to come together in one big party.” (Yorkshire Evening Post, 2002).

The carnival organisers suggested that the event is becoming more and more a tourist attraction, in the last decade have developed as a natural outgrowth and benefited the local economy. This is due to the better press coverage by the local and national press, previously carnival relied on local visitors over the years, but in last five years with the growth and size of the carnival increasing, it is now seen as one the major tourism attractions in the area. In return it has had considerable economic and social impact on the local community of Leeds. It is now strongly viewed by the local community and small businesses that carnival is a significant part of attracting tourism to the area and they value the tourist market as a vital tool for the development of the local economy. Therefore, carnival has been seen as a key development event which has generated tourist attraction to bring the local, national and international tourists to this unique event. Leeds West Indian Carnival in the last decade have developed as a natural outgrowth and benefited the local economy. However, the economic development of this festival has impacted upon the local small and large businesses, during the period leading up to the event. The festivals have become centre piece events for the local economy each year. The local hotels, restaurants, taxis, public transports and small stall traders have planned their business activities around these events. Moreover, cultural tourism to the local area has increased over the last decade, visitors are attracted to these festivals as far as Asia and Caribbean Islands. The event-tourism has been increased, which has developed greater economic and cultural benefits to the local areas.

CONCLUSION

The findings of this research show us that the festivals have contributed in the development of cultural tourism. Festivals attract culture tourists to local community events to promote cultural exchanges between tourists and resident. Cultural tourism brings benefits to the host cities, these benefits are not being analyzed in greater depth. The research suggests, there is no doubt that tourism festivals have major affects on the local economy directly and indirectly. That the spending by visitors on local goods and services has a direct economic impact on local businesses and also these benefits pass more widely across the economy and the community. On the other hand, cultural tourism does not take into account the loss of local beauty, environmental degradation and effects it creates on the local people of the host communities through their direct and indirect involvement with tourists. The study also found that some leading authors, Goldblatt 2002, Getz 1997 and Hall, 1992 argue that the festival organizer and local government only take into account the economic impacts and ignore the implications of social impacts of festivals. They argue that greater attention should be paid to the social impacts of festival. This research has also suggested that cultural tourism has been increased through development of local festivals and provided greater economic and cultural benefits to the local area. The visitors are attracted to these festivals from as far away as Europe and Caribbean Islands.

It was found that social and economic factors contributed to culture tourism growth in these festivals. The Edinburgh Festival and Leeds West Indian Carnival festivals have become a major tourist attraction for the local, regional and international visitors. This study highlighted in particular the Edinburgh Festival and Leeds West Indian Carnival festivals having economic impacts on the local economy and the community. Nevertheless, only an in-depth study can help us to understand the level of economic and social impacts these two festivals bring to local businesses and community in a wider scenario.

REFERENCES


  • British Tourist Authority (BTA) 2001 [Internet] Available from Accessed on [20/11/03]

  • Dwyer, L. et al (2000) A Framework for Assessing “Tangible” and “Intangible” Impacts of Events and Conventions Event Management Vol. 6 pp.175-189

  • English Heritage (2000) Tourism Facts 2001 Swindon: English Heritage

  • English Tourism Board (1991) Tourism and the Environment: Maintaining the Balance English Tourist Board

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