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Тексты для работы на занятии (IV семестр) специальности: бтп, изос уск. Прочтите - страница №1/1

ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ РАБОТЫ НА ЗАНЯТИИ (IV семестр)

СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТИ: БТП, ИЗОС уск.

Прочтите текст и выполните задания после текста

MEASURING TEMPERATURE (800)

There are several scales for measuring temperature. On the centigrade scale the boiling point of water is fixed at 100o (one hundred degrees), its freezing point is 0o (zero). The equivalent points on the Fahrenheit scale are 212o and 32o.

When it is necessary to convert temperature readings from the Fahrenheit scale to the Centigrade, we subtract 32 and multiply by 5/9.

Sometimes scientists use the Absolute scale (Kelvin) in which the temperature is measured in degrees Centigrade from the point at which molecular motion ceases. Absolute zero is –273,1oC.

The instruments measuring temperature, are the thermometers. Are nearly identical but each has a different scale. Most thermometers use mercury as an agent and we call them mercury thermometers. But at temperature below –39oC mercury freezes and becomes a solid. And so for measuring very high and very low temperatures we usually use electrical thermometer.
Exercise I. Выберите правильный ответ в соответствии с содержанием текста.


  1. What temperature scale do we usually use in this country?

  1. Fahrenheit; b) Kelvin; c) Centigrade

  1. What is boiling point of water on the Fahrenheit scale?

a) 100o; b) 212o; c) 373

  1. When do we use mercury thermometers?

  1. to measure very high temperatures

  2. to measure very low temperatures

  3. to measure average temperature



Exercise II. Найдите в (б) соответствующие русские словосочетания

а) 1. boiling point; 2. to measure low temperature; 3. temperature readings;

4. molecular motion; 5. freezing point; 6. to measure high temperature

б) 1. молекулярное движение; 2. точка замерзания; 3. измерять высокую температуру; 4. показания температуры; 5. измерять высокую температуру; 6. точка кипения


Прочитайте текст и выполните задание после текста.

IS THE USA SLOWLY DRYING UP? (900)

It is estimated that in 5 years, only three of the of the 18 federally designated water regions on the US mainland – New England, the Ohio basin and the South Atlantic-Eastern Gulf area – will be able to live comfortably with their water supplies. An even there, purity may prove to be just as serious a problem as water shortage.

“The 1997 draught is only a test run of what will be experienced in other areas of the US in future, when every year will be a short water year”, declares an official of the Western States Water Council in Salt Lake City.

Experts say that the nation’s water problems may be every bit as difficult and expensive to solve as the energy crisis. Proposed solutions range from towing icebergs from the Antarctic to piping water from Alaska at a cost exceeding that of the 10-billion-dollar Alaskan oil pipeline.

And, as with energy, water shortage may force dramatic changes in American society. Agricultural production probably would decline sharply as prime farming regions turn to deserts. Many communities would be forced to limit their growth.

Дайте ответы на следующие вопросы в соответствии с содержанием текста. Полученные предложения переведите на русский язык.

1. What problems will most water regions of the USA have in 5 years?

2. Why is it difficult and expensive to solve the nation’s water problem?

3. What will be results of water and energy shortage in American society?



Прочитайте текст. Озаглавьте его и выполните задание после текста. (800)

Today Moscow has a 19—gallon-per-capita day capacity of drinking water. In the years that Moscow has been the capital of the Russian state, its population has grown from 1.6 million to over 9 million. This called for adding water resources to those furnished by the Moskva River which does not fully satisfy the capital’s water needs. The Volga River gives Moscow a yellowish water with a peculiar taste and smell, because it flows through a boggy and marsh area, hence, the need for extra purification.

A series of experiments led to a decision to ozonize the capital’s drinking water. Specialists found ozone not only to be a powerful water purifier, but one that destroys all coloration, leaving the water a pleasant bluish hue, while also removing any and all unpleasant tastes or smells.

The new ozone station has just put into operation here, and now, each time a Muscovite turns on the faucet, he gets ozonated – that’s purified and sterilized – drinking water.



Дайте ответы на следующие вопросы в соответствии с содержанием текста. Полученные предложения переведите на русский язык.

1. What called for adding water resources to the capital of the Russian state?

2. What was the decision of this problem?

3. Why did specialists decide to ozonize drinking water?


Прочтите текст, обращая внимание на слова и выражения после текста, и выполните задания.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS (4.500)

1. Introduction. Many years ago man lived in harmony with nature, because industry was not much developed. Today, the contradictions between man and nature are dramatic. Every year world industry emits into the atmosphere about 1000 million tons of soot and other harmful substances. The acid-rain problem has spread rapidly in recent years, and experts fear the situation will worsen if the nations begin to burn more coal to generate electricity. People of many countries suffer from smog. Forests are disappearing. Water pollution in oceans, seas, lakes and rivers, air pollution and the destruction of the ozone layer could lead our planet to a global disaster. The Earth is our home, that’s why we must take care of it, for ourselves and for generations to come. We must keep our environment clean.
2. Air pollution. Usually two or three factors combine to form air pollution in any given location. The first factor is large amounts of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons emitted by motor vehicles concentrated in a relatively small area. The second is the smoke and other pollutants emitted by manufacturing facilities. These two factors can be partially eliminated through pollution-control devices on cars, trucks, and smokestacks.

The third factor that contributes to air pollution – one that cannot be changed – is the combination of weather and geography.

How effective is air pollution control? Most authorities agree that there has been progress since the mid 1970s. A number of countries have cleaner air today than they had twenty years ago. Numerous chemical companies have recognized that they must take responsibility for operating their plants in an environmentally safe manner. Some of them are now devote as much as 20 per cent of their capital expenditures to purchasing antipollution devices. However, air levels of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide – the main elements that cause acid rain – as well as of soot continue to increase.
3. Water pollution. Surface waters on our planet remains severely polluted. Currently, one of the most serious water-quality problems result from the high level of toxic pollutants found in these waters.

Among the serious threats to people posed by these pollutants and respiratory irritation, cancer, kidney and liver damage, anemia, and heat failure. Toxic pollutants also damage fish and other forms of wildlife.

A pulp-and-paper factory was built on the shores of Lake Baikal. As a result, because of water pollution, the world’s purest water has been spoiled. The whole ecological system of the lake has changed greatly. Some organisms that can be found only in Lake Baikal are disappearing, trees are dying from soot and gas emissions from the factories.

That’s why scientists, writers, and other people put the problem of Lake Baikal into the press, so public bodies and the government. Lake Baikal and its shores have been declared a specially protected zone of the country. There is a hope that one of the most beautiful and the deepest lakes of the world will never die.

The Aral Sea was a bright blue sea with a lot of fish. The Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers supplied it with water. But then the water of the rivers was diverted to cotton plantations. As a result the Aral now is in a very dangerous condition. If no immediate measures are taken, the Aral Sea will disappear by the 2010.

The Mediterranean Sea and the North Sea are half dead because great amounts of chemical and nuclear waste were dumped into their waters.


4. Land Pollution. Air and water quality may be improving, but land pollution is still a serious problem in many areas. The fundamental issues are (1) how to restore damaged or contaminated land at a reasonable cost and (2) how to protect unpolluted land from future damage.

The land pollution problem has been worsening over the past few years, as modern technology has continued to produce increasing amounts of chemical and radioactive waste.

Manufacturers produce and dump more than 100 million tons of contaminated oil, solvents, acids, and sludges each year. Service businesses, utility companies, hospitals, and other industries also dump vast amounts of wastes into the environment.

Individuals contribute to the waste disposal problem. On the average, each of us accounts for approximately 1,547 pounds of garbage each year. A shortage of landfills makes garbage disposal an especially serious predicament. Incinerators are a possible solution to the problem of a landfill shortage, but they bring with them their own problems. They reduce the amounts of garbage but also leave tons of ash to be buries – ash that has a high concentration of harmful substances.


5. Nuclear Power. They say that nuclear power is “cheap, clean and safe”… The explosion in Chernobyl shows it can go wrong. Nuclear weapons could destroy the world. Nuclear weapon tests increases the amount of radiation in the atmosphere. Nuclear power produces high-level radioactive waste which can be dangerous for thousands of years.

Before it’s too late, people have to change their way of life. We have to stop ruining the land, water and air.

We can help clean up the planet. Our planet needs immediate help. Each of us must do everything possible to save it.
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS TO THE TEXT “ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS”

1. Introduction

environment

however

contradiction



emit

soot


spread

rapid


recent

fear


worsen

burn


coal

suffer


disappear

pollution

air

destruction



disaster

2. Air Pollution

amount

area


smoke

partially

eliminate

device


truck

smokestack

contribute

recognize

plant

environmentally



devote

expenditure

purchase

cause


as well as

3. Water Pollution

currently

quality


among

threat


cancer

kidney


liver

damage


wildlife

pulp and paper

pure

spoil


that’s why

declare


supply with

divert


immediate

measure


Mediterranean Sea

half dead

nuclear

waste


dump

4. Land Pollution

improve


issue

restore


contaminate

as

oil



solvent

sludge


on the average

account for

approximately

pound


garbage

shortage


landfill

predicament

incinerator

ash


harmful

5. Nuclear Power

they say that…

power

explosion



it can go wrong

weapon


destroy

way of life

immediate

окружающая среда

однако

противоречие



выбрасывать (в атмосферу)

сажа


распространять(ся)

быстрый


последний, недавний

опасаться

ухудшаться

сжигать


уголь

страдать


исчезать

загрязнение

воздух

разрушение



катастрофа
количество

зд. площадь

дым

частично


ликвидировать

прибор, устройство

грузовая машина

дымовая труба

вносит вклад, способствовать

признавать

завод

экологически



уделять

расход


покупать

вызывать, являться причиной

а также
в настоящее время

качество


среди

угроза


рак

почка


печень

повреждение, наносить ущерб

живая природа

целлюлозно-бумажный

чистый

портить(ся)



вот почему

объявлять

снабжать (чем-либо)

отводить


безотлагательный

мероприятие

Средиземное море

полумертвый

ядерный

отходы


сбрасывать(отходы)
улучшать(ся)

вопрос


восстанавливать

заражать


так как

нефть


растворитель

отстой, шлам

в среднем

отвечать за (что-либо)

приблизительно

фунт(453,59 гр.)

отбросы (бытовые)

недостаток, нехватка

подземное захоронение

затруднение

мусоросжигающая печь

пепел


вредный
говорят, что

энергия


взрыв

может быть не так

оружие

уничтожать, разрушать



образ жизни

немедленный




I. К каждой паре данных слов вспомните русское слово с тем же корнем, что и английское

Образец: realize – понимать, осознавать (реализовать)

nature

dramatic
nations

generate

location


carbon monoxide
hydrocarbons


природа

разительный,

впечатляющий

страны, люди

производить

местность

одноокись углерода

углеводород




geography
authority
operate

condition

industry
individual


географическое положение

специалист, авторитетное лицо

эксплуатировать

состояние

промышленное предприятие

отдельное лицо




II. Подберите русские эквиваленты к следующим английским словам.

  1. ozone layer

  2. take care (of)

  3. for ourselves

  4. generations to come

  5. motor vehicle

  6. manufacturing facilities

  7. take responsibility

  8. safe manner

  9. sulfur dioxide

  10. nitrogen dioxide

  11. surface waters

  12. respiratory irritation

  13. heart failure

  14. public body

  15. reasonable cost

  16. utility company

  17. vast amount

  18. waste disposal

  19. ash to be buried

ликвидация отходов

общественная организация

невысокая (приемлемая) себестоимость

поверхностные воды

воспаление дыхательных путей

заботиться (о)

огромное количество

ради нас


сердечная недостаточность

двуокись серы

будущие поколения

компания коммунального обслуживания

ликвидация отходов

пепел, который нужно зарыть в землю

озоновый слой

транспортное средство

производственное оборудование

географическое положение

двуокись азота



III. Переведите следующие слова и выражения на русский язык.

Harmful substances, environment, acid rain problem, water pollution, global disaster, the Earth, generations to come, carbon monoxide, manufacturing facilities, pollution-control device, antipollution device, sulfur dioxide, dangerous condition, chemical and nuclear waste, air and water quality, surface waters, toxic pollutants, damaged and contaminated land, land pollution problem, utility company, vast amounts of waste, waste disposal problem, garbage disposal, shortage of landfills, solution to the problem, nuclear power, nuclear weapon test, emit harmful substances, damage wildlife, dense fog, cause acid rain, dump chemical and radioactive waste, destroy the world, save our planet.


IV. Переведите на английский язык следующие слова и выражения

Окружающая среда, загрязнение, вредные вещества, выбросы в атмосферу, химические и радиоактивные (ядерные) отходы, загрязнение земли, загрязнение воздуха, огромное количество отходов, проблема ликвидации отходов, бытовые отбросы, выбрасывать в атмосферу, сжигать уголь, производить электричество, сбрасывать химические и радиоактивные отходы, наносить ущерб, спасать нашу планету, качество воды и воздуха, зараженная земля, опасное состояние, густой туман, кислотный дождь, разрушать мир, поверхностные воды, производственное оборудование, заботиться о живой природе, ухудшаться.


V. Закончите следующие предложения, используя английские эквиваленты из текста. Полученные предложения переведите на русский язык.

1. Every year world industry … into the atmosphere soot and other harmful substances.

2. The acid rain problem will worsen if the nations begin to … more coal to … electricity.

3. The first factor of air pollution is large amounts of … and … emitted by motor vehicles.

4. The second is the … and other pollutants emitted by manufacturing factories.

5. The thirst factor is the combination of … and … .

6. One of the most serious water quality problems is high level of toxic … found in these waters.

7. Toxic pollutants damage fish and other forms of … .

8. The land pollution problem has been worsening over the past few years, as modern technology has continued to produce vast amount of … and … waste.

9. Service businesses utility companies and other … also dump vast amounts of … into the environment.

10. A shortage of landfills makes garbage … an especially serious predicament.

11. … are a possible solution to the problem of a landfill shortage but they leave tons of ash to be buried.

12. Nuclear power produces high-level … which can be dangerous for thousands of years.
VI. Дайте ответы на следующие вопросы в соответствии с текстом. Полученные предложения переведите на русский язык.

1. Why did man live in harmony with nature many years ago?

2. What environmental problems do you know? List them.

3. What is the cause of the acid-rain problem?

4. What are the main factors of air pollution in any given locality?

5. What does one of the most serious water quality problems result from?

6. Why is Lake Baikal in dangerous condition?

7. What cay you say about the Mediterranean Sea and the North Sea?

8. In what condition is the Aral Sea now and why?

9. What are the two fundamental issues of land pollution?

10. What makes garbage disposal an especially serious predicament?

11. What problems do incinerators bring with them?

12. Whys is radioactive and nuclear waste dangerous?
Прочтите текст, обращая внимание на слова и выражения после текста, и выполните задания.

ENVIRONMENTAL ADVANTAGES OF INCREASED POWER EXCHANGE (2.500)

Environmental protection, especially air pollution prevention is one of the main issues of the energy sector today. Acidification of soil and water and the threat of climate change are well-known examples of the environmental challenges that energy companies, among other companies, are facing today.

The development of environmental technology, increasing environmental awareness and improved scientific knowledge of the environmental effects of different pollutants have lead to international and national effects to avoid or reduce the problems. Western electricity producers with their huge investments in environmental technologies have shown that much can be done in this respect. However, because of a variety of reasons there are still big differences in environmental protection activities between different regions, for instance between different countries around the Baltic Sea.

According to the best available information the acidic depositions still exceeds the critical loads by a factor of 2-4 even in the areas of the lowest deposition, i.e. in the Nordic countries. In the southern parts of the Baltic Sea region this factor is higher.

The origins of these unbalances, including energy resources, are different in the different parts of the Baltic Sea region. The northern parts have a lot of clean hydro and safe nuclear power whereas fossil fuels play a dominant role in the southern parts.

However, the most decisive factor behind the unbalances in today’s situations in the eastern and southern part of the Baltic Sea region the economy does not allow to do all the environmental protection measures, which would be needed. In Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland alone 30 per cent reduction of SO2 emissions and the freezing of No emissions would require investments of 10 billion USD. The critical question is to find the money needed for huge environmental and energy efficiency investments.

An increased energy exchange can serve as a part of the solution when trying to reach a more balanced situation in environmental protection between the two different areas of the Baltic Sea region.

Because atmospheric pollutants do not recognize national borders, international cooperation is the only way to solve the problems. It is the matter of electricity companies to find practical ways of an increased cooperation, which benefit all parties. Governments can do a lot to stimulate this kind of cooperation. This can be realized in many ways, not only by creating funding systems but also by developing international and national rules in environmental protection measures over a larger area than one country legislations, could additionally stimulate and intensify the co-operation.


СЛОВА И ВЫРАЖЕНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ

ENVIRONMENTAL ADVANTAGES OF INCREASED POWER EXCHANGE”



advantage

power exchange

increase

especially

prevention

acidification

soil

threat


face

environmental awareness

effort

avoid


huge

investment

because of

reason


burden

according to

acidic deposition

exceed


load

i.e.=id est=that is

origin

a lot of


whereas

fossil fuel

consequence

former


allow

measure


percent

reduction

SO2 – sulfur dioxide

freeze


NO- nitrogen oxides

billion


recognize

border


the only

solve


solution

matter


benefit

create


rule

direction

legislation

additional



преимущество

обмен электроэнергией

увеличивать(ся)

особенно


предотвращение

окисление

почва

угроза


сталкиваться (с чем-либо)

осознание экологических проблем

усилие

избегать


огромный

инвестиция, вложение

из-за

причина


бремя

согласно


кислотный осадок

превышать

нагрузка

т.е. = то есть

происхождение

много


тогда как

ископаемый вид топлива

следствие

прежний


разрешать

мероприятие

процент

уменьшение



двуокись серы

замораживать, останавливать

окислы азота

миллиард


признавать

граница


единственный

решать


решение

дело


приносить выгоду

создавать

правило

направление



законодательство

дополнительный




I. К каждой паре данных слов вспомните русское слово с тем же корнем, что и английское

Образец: realize – понимать, осознавать (реализовать)


protection

effect


variety

natural


factor

Nordic


Unbalance

защита

влияние


разнообразие

природный

коэффициент

скандинавский

дисбаланс


emission

realize


international

cooperation

stimulate

optimization

intensify


выброс

осуществлять

международный

сотрудничество

поощрять
усиливать



II. Переведите следующие слова и выражения на русский язык.

Environmental protection, air pollution prevention, acidification of soil and water, the threat of climate change, environmental challenges, environmental effects of different pollutants, huge investments in environmental technologies, a variety of reasons, environmental protection activities, acidic deposition, the areas of the lowest deposition, natural resources, hydro and nuclear power, the most decisive factor, environmental protection measures, atmospheric pollutants, to create funding systems.


III. Дайте ответы на следующие вопросы и задания в соответствии с текстом. Полученные предложения переведите на русский язык.

1. Give an example of the environmental challenges that energy companies are facing today.

2. Are there big differences between different countries and regions in environmental protection?

3. In what countries is the lowest acidic deposition?

4. Explain the origins of environmental unbalances in different parts of the Baltic Sea region.

5. What is the most decisive factor behind these unbalances?

6. What is the only way to solve the problems of atmospheric pollutions now?

7. What is needed to improve the environmental situation in the southern and eastern part of the Baltic Sea region?



8. Can an increased energy exchange between countries solve this problem?

9. What are the other ways of improving the situation?




Пример чистоты нравов Александра Великого куда реже склоняет людей к воздержанности, нежели пример его пьянства — к распущенности. Совсем не зазорно быть менее добродетельным, чем он, и простительно быть столь же порочным. Нам мнится, не такие уж мы обычные распутники, если те же пороки были свойственны и великим людям. Блез Паскаль
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