Тексты для работы на занятии (IV семестр) специальности: бтп, изос уск. Прочтите - страница №1/1
СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТИ: БТП, ИЗОС уск.
Прочтите текст и выполните задания после текста
MEASURING TEMPERATURE (800)
There are several scales for measuring temperature. On the centigrade scale the boiling point of water is fixed at 100o (one hundred degrees), its freezing point is 0o (zero). The equivalent points on the Fahrenheit scale are 212o and 32o.
When it is necessary to convert temperature readings from the Fahrenheit scale to the Centigrade, we subtract 32 and multiply by 5/9.
Sometimes scientists use the Absolute scale (Kelvin) in which the temperature is measured in degrees Centigrade from the point at which molecular motion ceases. Absolute zero is –273,1oC.
The instruments measuring temperature, are the thermometers. Are nearly identical but each has a different scale. Most thermometers use mercury as an agent and we call them mercury thermometers. But at temperature below –39oC mercury freezes and becomes a solid. And so for measuring very high and very low temperatures we usually use electrical thermometer.
a) 100o; b) 212o; c) 373
Exercise II. Найдите в (б) соответствующие русские словосочетания
а) 1. boiling point; 2. to measure low temperature; 3. temperature readings;
4. molecular motion; 5. freezing point; 6. to measure high temperature
б) 1. молекулярное движение; 2. точка замерзания; 3. измерять высокую температуру; 4. показания температуры; 5. измерять высокую температуру; 6. точка кипения
Прочитайте текст и выполните задание после текста.
IS THE USA SLOWLY DRYING UP? (900)
It is estimated that in 5 years, only three of the of the 18 federally designated water regions on the US mainland – New England, the Ohio basin and the South Atlantic-Eastern Gulf area – will be able to live comfortably with their water supplies. An even there, purity may prove to be just as serious a problem as water shortage.
“The 1997 draught is only a test run of what will be experienced in other areas of the US in future, when every year will be a short water year”, declares an official of the Western States Water Council in Salt Lake City.
Experts say that the nation’s water problems may be every bit as difficult and expensive to solve as the energy crisis. Proposed solutions range from towing icebergs from the Antarctic to piping water from Alaska at a cost exceeding that of the 10-billion-dollar Alaskan oil pipeline.
And, as with energy, water shortage may force dramatic changes in American society. Agricultural production probably would decline sharply as prime farming regions turn to deserts. Many communities would be forced to limit their growth.
1. What problems will most water regions of the USA have in 5 years?
2. Why is it difficult and expensive to solve the nation’s water problem?
3. What will be results of water and energy shortage in American society?
Прочитайте текст. Озаглавьте его и выполните задание после текста. (800)
Today Moscow has a 19—gallon-per-capita day capacity of drinking water. In the years that Moscow has been the capital of the Russian state, its population has grown from 1.6 million to over 9 million. This called for adding water resources to those furnished by the Moskva River which does not fully satisfy the capital’s water needs. The Volga River gives Moscow a yellowish water with a peculiar taste and smell, because it flows through a boggy and marsh area, hence, the need for extra purification.
A series of experiments led to a decision to ozonize the capital’s drinking water. Specialists found ozone not only to be a powerful water purifier, but one that destroys all coloration, leaving the water a pleasant bluish hue, while also removing any and all unpleasant tastes or smells.
The new ozone station has just put into operation here, and now, each time a Muscovite turns on the faucet, he gets ozonated – that’s purified and sterilized – drinking water.
Дайте ответы на следующие вопросы в соответствии с содержанием текста. Полученные предложения переведите на русский язык.
1. What called for adding water resources to the capital of the Russian state?
2. What was the decision of this problem?
3. Why did specialists decide to ozonize drinking water?
Прочтите текст, обращая внимание на слова и выражения после текста, и выполните задания.
ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS (4.500)
1. Introduction. Many years ago man lived in harmony with nature, because industry was not much developed. Today, the contradictions between man and nature are dramatic. Every year world industry emits into the atmosphere about 1000 million tons of soot and other harmful substances. The acid-rain problem has spread rapidly in recent years, and experts fear the situation will worsen if the nations begin to burn more coal to generate electricity. People of many countries suffer from smog. Forests are disappearing. Water pollution in oceans, seas, lakes and rivers, air pollution and the destruction of the ozone layer could lead our planet to a global disaster. The Earth is our home, that’s why we must take care of it, for ourselves and for generations to come. We must keep our environment clean.
2. Air pollution. Usually two or three factors combine to form air pollution in any given location. The first factor is large amounts of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons emitted by motor vehicles concentrated in a relatively small area. The second is the smoke and other pollutants emitted by manufacturing facilities. These two factors can be partially eliminated through pollution-control devices on cars, trucks, and smokestacks.
The third factor that contributes to air pollution – one that cannot be changed – is the combination of weather and geography.
How effective is air pollution control? Most authorities agree that there has been progress since the mid 1970s. A number of countries have cleaner air today than they had twenty years ago. Numerous chemical companies have recognized that they must take responsibility for operating their plants in an environmentally safe manner. Some of them are now devote as much as 20 per cent of their capital expenditures to purchasing antipollution devices. However, air levels of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide – the main elements that cause acid rain – as well as of soot continue to increase.
Among the serious threats to people posed by these pollutants and respiratory irritation, cancer, kidney and liver damage, anemia, and heat failure. Toxic pollutants also damage fish and other forms of wildlife.
A pulp-and-paper factory was built on the shores of Lake Baikal. As a result, because of water pollution, the world’s purest water has been spoiled. The whole ecological system of the lake has changed greatly. Some organisms that can be found only in Lake Baikal are disappearing, trees are dying from soot and gas emissions from the factories.
That’s why scientists, writers, and other people put the problem of Lake Baikal into the press, so public bodies and the government. Lake Baikal and its shores have been declared a specially protected zone of the country. There is a hope that one of the most beautiful and the deepest lakes of the world will never die.
The Aral Sea was a bright blue sea with a lot of fish. The Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers supplied it with water. But then the water of the rivers was diverted to cotton plantations. As a result the Aral now is in a very dangerous condition. If no immediate measures are taken, the Aral Sea will disappear by the 2010.
The Mediterranean Sea and the North Sea are half dead because great amounts of chemical and nuclear waste were dumped into their waters.
4. Land Pollution. Air and water quality may be improving, but land pollution is still a serious problem in many areas. The fundamental issues are (1) how to restore damaged or contaminated land at a reasonable cost and (2) how to protect unpolluted land from future damage.
The land pollution problem has been worsening over the past few years, as modern technology has continued to produce increasing amounts of chemical and radioactive waste.
Manufacturers produce and dump more than 100 million tons of contaminated oil, solvents, acids, and sludges each year. Service businesses, utility companies, hospitals, and other industries also dump vast amounts of wastes into the environment.
Individuals contribute to the waste disposal problem. On the average, each of us accounts for approximately 1,547 pounds of garbage each year. A shortage of landfills makes garbage disposal an especially serious predicament. Incinerators are a possible solution to the problem of a landfill shortage, but they bring with them their own problems. They reduce the amounts of garbage but also leave tons of ash to be buries – ash that has a high concentration of harmful substances.
5. Nuclear Power. They say that nuclear power is “cheap, clean and safe”… The explosion in Chernobyl shows it can go wrong. Nuclear weapons could destroy the world. Nuclear weapon tests increases the amount of radiation in the atmosphere. Nuclear power produces high-level radioactive waste which can be dangerous for thousands of years.
Before it’s too late, people have to change their way of life. We have to stop ruining the land, water and air.
We can help clean up the planet. Our planet needs immediate help. Each of us must do everything possible to save it.
I. К каждой паре данных слов вспомните русское слово с тем же корнем, что и английское
Образец: realize – понимать, осознавать (реализовать)
II. Подберите русские эквиваленты к следующим английским словам.
III. Переведите следующие слова и выражения на русский язык.
Harmful substances, environment, acid rain problem, water pollution, global disaster, the Earth, generations to come, carbon monoxide, manufacturing facilities, pollution-control device, antipollution device, sulfur dioxide, dangerous condition, chemical and nuclear waste, air and water quality, surface waters, toxic pollutants, damaged and contaminated land, land pollution problem, utility company, vast amounts of waste, waste disposal problem, garbage disposal, shortage of landfills, solution to the problem, nuclear power, nuclear weapon test, emit harmful substances, damage wildlife, dense fog, cause acid rain, dump chemical and radioactive waste, destroy the world, save our planet.
IV. Переведите на английский язык следующие слова и выражения
Окружающая среда, загрязнение, вредные вещества, выбросы в атмосферу, химические и радиоактивные (ядерные) отходы, загрязнение земли, загрязнение воздуха, огромное количество отходов, проблема ликвидации отходов, бытовые отбросы, выбрасывать в атмосферу, сжигать уголь, производить электричество, сбрасывать химические и радиоактивные отходы, наносить ущерб, спасать нашу планету, качество воды и воздуха, зараженная земля, опасное состояние, густой туман, кислотный дождь, разрушать мир, поверхностные воды, производственное оборудование, заботиться о живой природе, ухудшаться.
V. Закончите следующие предложения, используя английские эквиваленты из текста. Полученные предложения переведите на русский язык.
1. Every year world industry … into the atmosphere soot and other harmful substances.
2. The acid rain problem will worsen if the nations begin to … more coal to … electricity.
3. The first factor of air pollution is large amounts of … and … emitted by motor vehicles.
4. The second is the … and other pollutants emitted by manufacturing factories.
5. The thirst factor is the combination of … and … .
6. One of the most serious water quality problems is high level of toxic … found in these waters.
7. Toxic pollutants damage fish and other forms of … .
8. The land pollution problem has been worsening over the past few years, as modern technology has continued to produce vast amount of … and … waste.
9. Service businesses utility companies and other … also dump vast amounts of … into the environment.
10. A shortage of landfills makes garbage … an especially serious predicament.
11. … are a possible solution to the problem of a landfill shortage but they leave tons of ash to be buried.
12. Nuclear power produces high-level … which can be dangerous for thousands of years.
1. Why did man live in harmony with nature many years ago?
2. What environmental problems do you know? List them.
3. What is the cause of the acid-rain problem?
4. What are the main factors of air pollution in any given locality?
5. What does one of the most serious water quality problems result from?
6. Why is Lake Baikal in dangerous condition?
7. What cay you say about the Mediterranean Sea and the North Sea?
8. In what condition is the Aral Sea now and why?
9. What are the two fundamental issues of land pollution?
10. What makes garbage disposal an especially serious predicament?
11. What problems do incinerators bring with them?
12. Whys is radioactive and nuclear waste dangerous?
Environmental protection, especially air pollution prevention is one of the main issues of the energy sector today. Acidification of soil and water and the threat of climate change are well-known examples of the environmental challenges that energy companies, among other companies, are facing today.
The development of environmental technology, increasing environmental awareness and improved scientific knowledge of the environmental effects of different pollutants have lead to international and national effects to avoid or reduce the problems. Western electricity producers with their huge investments in environmental technologies have shown that much can be done in this respect. However, because of a variety of reasons there are still big differences in environmental protection activities between different regions, for instance between different countries around the Baltic Sea.
According to the best available information the acidic depositions still exceeds the critical loads by a factor of 2-4 even in the areas of the lowest deposition, i.e. in the Nordic countries. In the southern parts of the Baltic Sea region this factor is higher.
The origins of these unbalances, including energy resources, are different in the different parts of the Baltic Sea region. The northern parts have a lot of clean hydro and safe nuclear power whereas fossil fuels play a dominant role in the southern parts.
However, the most decisive factor behind the unbalances in today’s situations in the eastern and southern part of the Baltic Sea region the economy does not allow to do all the environmental protection measures, which would be needed. In Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland alone 30 per cent reduction of SO2 emissions and the freezing of No emissions would require investments of 10 billion USD. The critical question is to find the money needed for huge environmental and energy efficiency investments.
An increased energy exchange can serve as a part of the solution when trying to reach a more balanced situation in environmental protection between the two different areas of the Baltic Sea region.
Because atmospheric pollutants do not recognize national borders, international cooperation is the only way to solve the problems. It is the matter of electricity companies to find practical ways of an increased cooperation, which benefit all parties. Governments can do a lot to stimulate this kind of cooperation. This can be realized in many ways, not only by creating funding systems but also by developing international and national rules in environmental protection measures over a larger area than one country legislations, could additionally stimulate and intensify the co-operation.
СЛОВА И ВЫРАЖЕНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ
“ENVIRONMENTAL ADVANTAGES OF INCREASED POWER EXCHANGE”
I. К каждой паре данных слов вспомните русское слово с тем же корнем, что и английское
Образец: realize – понимать, осознавать (реализовать)
II. Переведите следующие слова и выражения на русский язык.
Environmental protection, air pollution prevention, acidification of soil and water, the threat of climate change, environmental challenges, environmental effects of different pollutants, huge investments in environmental technologies, a variety of reasons, environmental protection activities, acidic deposition, the areas of the lowest deposition, natural resources, hydro and nuclear power, the most decisive factor, environmental protection measures, atmospheric pollutants, to create funding systems.
III. Дайте ответы на следующие вопросы и задания в соответствии с текстом. Полученные предложения переведите на русский язык.
1. Give an example of the environmental challenges that energy companies are facing today.
2. Are there big differences between different countries and regions in environmental protection?
3. In what countries is the lowest acidic deposition?
4. Explain the origins of environmental unbalances in different parts of the Baltic Sea region.
5. What is the most decisive factor behind these unbalances?
6. What is the only way to solve the problems of atmospheric pollutions now?
7. What is needed to improve the environmental situation in the southern and eastern part of the Baltic Sea region?
8. Can an increased energy exchange between countries solve this problem?
9. What are the other ways of improving the situation?