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Саратова The Nicknames of the States of the usa секция Английский язык - страница №2/2


New Hampshire

In 1788, New Hampshire became the 9th state. The capital of state – Concord. The slogan of state – “Live free or die”. The state was named for Hampshire, England, by Captain John mason. In 1830, the state was known as “The Granite State’ because the real significance of this name is to examine the land, people and history of New Hampshire and this nickname is still used today. Other nicknames have appeared as “The White Mountain State” and “The Mother of Rivers” (because of the many rivers, which start in the White Mountains).



New York

In 1788, New York became the 11th state. The capital of the state – Albany. The slogan of the state – “Ever upward”. Origin of the name New York – the English took over of the area that had been called “New Netherland” in 1664, and renamed it New York to honor the Duke of York. Some have called New York “The Excelsior State”. This nickname comes from the slogan of New York. Also New York is called “The Empire Sate” because of its wealth and variety of resources.



North Carolina

In 1789, North Carolina became the 12th state. The capital of the state – Raleigh. The slogan of the state – “To be rather than to seem”. North Carolina was named to honor King Charles I. In 1844, the state was known as “The Tar and Turpentine State” and by 1859, the state was known as “Turpentine State”. The modern day nickname of the state “The Tarheel State” goes to the mid 19th century. This nickname is grounded, at least in part, in one of the state’s major products during the Colonial Era-tar. The tar was mad by slowly burning the wood of longleaf pine trees.



Oklahoma

In 1907, Oklahoma became the 46th state. The capital of the state –

Oklahoma City. The slogan of the state – “Labor conquers all things”. The name Oklahoma is from the Indian words “Okla” meaning people and “Humma” meaning red. In 1889, the Indian Territory was opened to settlers. They raced into the territory to claim their land and they became known as “aggressor”. Hence, Oklahoma’s nickname today is “The sooner State”.

Oregon

In 1859, Oregon became the 33rd state. The capital of the state – Salem. The slogan of the state – “The union”. The origin is unknown. It may have come from the French word Ouragan (which means Hurricane). Through the years, Oregon been called “The Sunshine State”, “Webfoot State” (because of the high level of rainfall). But since 1969, the state’s animal is the beaver, and gave it the nickname of state “The beaver State”.



Pennsylvania

In 1787, Pennsylvania became the 2nd state. The capital of the state – Harrisburg. The slogan of the state – “Virtue, liberty and independence”. This state was named to honor Admiral William Penn and his son. William Penn, Pennsylvania’s founder. One of the oldest nicknames is “The Keystone State” (from 1802). The industry of state gave it the nickname “The Coal State and Steel State”. Also this state is called “The Quaker State”. The Quakers is a religious movement, whose members are known as Friends or Quakers.



Rhode Island

In 1790, Rhode Island became the 13th state. The capital of the state –

Providence. The slogan of the state – “Hope”. Rhode Island was named for the Isle of Rhodes (in the Mediterranean Sea). In 1847, the state was as “The Plantation State”. Since 1851, the smallest state is just called “Little Rhody”. It is used it times as a measure in relation to other areas or items.

South Carolina

In 1788, South Carolina became the 8th state. The capital of the state – Columbia. The slogan of the state – “While I breathe, I hope”. South Carolina was named to honor king Charles I. south Carolina has nickname “The Palmetto Palm” (a variety of fan palm) since colonial days. Other nicknames – “The Keystone of the South Atlantic” and “The Seaboard State”.



Texas

In 1845, Texas became the 28th state. The capital of the state – Austin. The slogan of the state – Friendship”. The Caddo Indians of eastern Texas called their group of tribes the “Tejas”, meaning those who are friends. Texas’ nickname “The Lone Star State” is derived from its flag (represented the desire of some Texas to join the United States).



Utah

In 1896, Utah became the 45th state. The capital of the state – Salt Lake City. The slogan of the state – “Industry”. The state is named for the Indians that lived in the region. The state has several nicknames. It is known as “The Beehive State” because the beehive was adopted, in 1847, as an official emblem and represents the qualities of industry. “The Deseret State”. This name was the colony from 1849 to 1850, because when the Mormons first came to the territory, they named the area “The Deseret” (a reference to the honeybee).



Vermont

In 1791, Vermont became the 14th state. The capital of the state – Montpelier. The slogan of the state – “Vermont, Freedom and Unity”. Vermont is an English form of the name. It is known nickname “The Green Mountain State” because the French explorer Samuel de Champlain gave to Vermont’s Green Mountains on his map in 1647.



Virginia

In 1788, Virginia became the 10th state. The capital of the state – Richmond.

The slogan of the state – “Thus always to tyrants. The state was named to honor Queen Elizabeth I of England. The state’s nickname is “The Old Dominion”. This nickname was given by King Charles II in recognition of Virginia’s loyalty to the Crown. Another nickname is “The Mother of Presidents” because it is the birthplace of 8th us presidents.

West Virginia

In 1863, West Virginia became the 31st state. The capital of the state – Charleston. The slogan of the state – “Mountaineers are always free”. West Virginia was named for Queen Elizabeth I of England. The state is known nickname “The Mountain State” because the Appalachian Mountains that cross the state. Another nickname – “Switzerland of America” because early settlers compared mountainous areas of the new land to the mountains of Switzerland.



Wisconsin

In 1848, Wisconsin became the 29th state. The capital of the state – Madison. The slogan of the state – “Forward!” Wisconsin is from an Indian word that means “long river”. One of state’s nickname “The Badger state”, it was coined due to the prevalence of mineworkers in the state’s early. Another nickname is “The Copper State” (a reference to the northern copper mines).



Appendix

Research Part

My dad lives in America in the State of Illinois. Speaking to him on the telephone I asked him to interview some of his American friends and neighbours about the use of state nicknames. Thanks to his help and I’ve made the survey.

Here are some questions and the comments on his interview about this problem.


  1. Do American people use nicknames of the states in their speech nowadays?

  1. often

  2. sometimes

  3. always

  4. never



  1. Does a state reflect its nickname today?

  1. Yes

  2. No





What do American people think about a nickname?

  1. they are proud of it

  2. they don’t know about it





  1. Do young people know about the existence of the nickname of their state?

  1. yes

  2. no

So, we have found out that American people know and are proud of their states’ nicknames, but they use them only on the signs, billboards, and cars’ numbers.



Nicknames are used on the cars’ numbers5



Appendix6

Brief description of modern states and their nicknames

Official name  

Date of founded  

Nickname

Capital

  


State of Alabama

Алабама

1819121414 декабря

1819

Yellow hammer state – штат овсянки(назва-ние птицы);

the heart of Dixie – сердце Юга



Монтгомери

State of Alaska

Аляска

195901033 января

1959

The last frontier – последняя граница, The Great Land – великая земля

Джуно

State of Arizona

Аризона

1912021414 февраля

1912

The Grand Canyon state – штат большого каньона

Финикс

State of Arkansas

Арканзас

1836061515 июня

1836

The land of opportunity – страна возможностей

Литл-Рок

State of California

Калифорния

185009099 сентября

1850

The golden state – золотой штат,

Beaver State – бобровый штат


Сакраменто

State of Colorado

Колорадо

187608011 августа

1876

The centennial state – штат столетия



Денвер

State of Connecticut

Коннектикут

178801099 января

1788

The constitution state – штат Конституции; The nutmeg state – штат мускатного ореха, the brownstone state – штат коричневого камня, Национальный арсенал

Хартфорд

State of Delaware

Делавэр

178712077 декабря

1787

The first state – первый штат;

the diamond state – штат бриллиант; штат Голубого петуха

Довер

State of Florida

Флорида

184503033 марта

1845

The sunshine state – солнечный штат

Штат Еверглейд (район обширных болот) и Апельсиновый штат



Таллахасси

State of Georgia

Джорджия

178801022 января

1788

The empire state of the south –

имперский штат Юга; The peach state – персиковый штат



Атланта

State of Hawai‘i
Moku‘a-ina o

Гавайи Hawai‘i

1959082121 августа

1959

The Aloha state – гостеприим-ный штат

Гонолулу

State of Idaho

Айдахо

189007033 июля

1890

The gem state – драгоценный камень

Бойсе

State of Illinois

Иллинойс

181812033 декабря

1818

The prairie state – штат прерий, the land of Lincoln – земля Линкольна

Спрингфилд

State of Indiana

Индиана

1816121111 декабря

1816

The hosier state – штат-мужлан

Индианаполис

State of Iowa

Айова

1846122828 декабря

1846

The tall corn state –

в высокой кукурузы; The hawkeye state – соколиного глаза



Де-Мойн

State of Kansas

Канзас

1861012929 января

1861

The sunflower state – подсолнуховый штат, The central state – центральный штат

Топика

Commonwealth of Kentucky

Кентукки

179206011 июня

1792

The bluegrass state – штат голубой травы

Франкфорт

State of Louisiana
État de Louisiane

Луизиана

1812043030 апреля

1812

The pelican state – пеликаний штат

Батон-Руж

State of Maine

Мэн

1820031515 марта

1820

The pine tree state – сосновый штат

Огаста

State of Maryland

Мэриленд

1788042828 апреля

1788

Old Line State - штат старой границы,

Free State - Свободный штат,

Cockade State - Кокардный штат


Аннаполис

Commonwealth of Massachusetts

Массачусетс

178802066 февраля

1788

The bay state – штат у залива

Бостон

State of Michigan

Мичиган

1837012626 января

1837

The molverine state – штат росомах; the Great lake state - штат у Великого озера

Лэнсинг

State of Minnesota

Миннесота

1858051111 мая

1858

The north star state – штат северной звезды; the Bread and Butter state –

Штат хлеба с маслом; the wheat state – пшеничный штат; Gopher State - Штат

сусликов; Land of 10,000 Lakes - Земля 10 000 озер



Сент-Пол

State of Mississippi

Миссисипи

1817121010 декабря

1817

The Magnolia state

Джексон

State of Missouri

Миссури

1821081010 августа

1821

The snow-me state – штат «скептиков»

Джефферсон-Сити

State of Montana

Монтана

188911088 ноября

1889

The treasure state – штат сокровищ

Хелена

State of Nebraska

Небраска

186703011 марта

1867

The black water state – штат чёрной воды; The Tree-planters state

Линкольн

State of Nevada

Невада

1864103131 октября

1864

The silver state – серебряный штат; The sagebrush state – полынный штат; The Battle Born State - Штат, рождённый Боях

Карсон-Сити

State of New Hampshire

Нью-Гэмпшир

1788062121 июня

1788

The granite state – гранитный штат; The white mountain state – штат белой горы

Конкорд

State of New Jersey

Нью-Джерси

1787121818 декабря

1787

The garden state – садовый штат

Трентон

State of New Mexico
Нью-Мексико

191201066 января

1912

The land of enchantment – страна очарования

Санта-Фе

State of New York

Нью-Йорк

1788072626 июля

1788

The Empire state – имперский штат

Олбани

State of North Carolina

Северная
Каролина

1789112121 ноября

1789

The tarheel state – штат чернопяточников

Роли

State of North Dakota

Северная
Дакота

188911022 ноября

1889

The Flickertail state – сусликовый штат; The Sioux state – штат индейцев

Бисмарк

State of Ohio

Огайо

180303011 марта

1803

The buckeye state – штат конского каштана

Колумбус

State of Oklahoma

Оклахома

1907111616 ноября

1907

The sooner sate – штат землезахватчиков; штат торопыг

Оклахома-Сити

State of Oregon

Орегон


1859021414 февраля

1859

The beaver state – бобровый штат

Сейлем

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

Пенсильвания

1787121212 декабря

1787

The Keystone sate – штат замкового камня

Харрисбург

State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations

Род-Айленд

1790052929 мая

1790

Little Rhody - Роди

Провиденс

State of South Carolina

Южная
Каролина

1788052323 мая

1788

The Palmetto state – штат пальметты

(карликовых пальм)



Колумбия

State of South Dakota

Южная
Дакота

188911022 ноября

1889

The Coyote state – штат койотов;

Штат Маунт-Раушмора



Пирр

State of Tennessee

Теннесси

179606011 июня

1796

The volunteer state – штат добровольцев

Нэшвилл

State of Texas

Техас

1845122929 декабря

1845

The lone star state – штат одинокой звезды

Остин

State of Utah

Юта

189601044 января

1896

The Salt Lake state – штат солёного озера; The beehive state – штат-улей

Солт-Лейк-Сити

State of Vermont

Вермонт

179103044 марта

1791

The Green mountain state – штат зелёных гор

Монтпилиер

Commonwealth of Virginia

Вирджиния

1788062525 июня

1788

Mother of Presidents – мать президентов; The Old Dominion – старый доминион

Ричмонд

State of Washington

Вашингтон

1889111111 ноября

1889

The Evegreen state – вечнозелёный штат

Олимпия

State of West Virginia

Западная
Вирджиния

1863062020 июля

1863

The mountain state – горный штат

Чарлстон

State of Wisconsin

Висконсин

1848052929 мая

1848

The badger state – барсучий штат

Мэдисон

State of Wyoming

Вайоминг

1890071010 июля

1890

The equality state -штат равноправия

Cowboy State - Ковбойский штат



Шайенн



Conclusion

The nicknames are of great interest from many different points of view. People of various professions are interested in them.

The necessity of examination of names and nicknames of places and things in the aspect of culture – oriented linguistics will have a positive influence on the knowledge of the progress of language, contemporary speech, literature and culture of English – speaking countries. More than that, this knowledge will be useful for students.

Nicknames depend on…


Nicknames



Plants which grow there



Animals which live there

Link with person’s characteristic



Link with history and government of the state

Link with minerals there


So, we see, that studying the history of the country helps us learn a lot of unusual facts. We sometimes do not think about the origin of the well - known names. In addition, if you find the information, then it will be easier to understand certain events in the country.



Bibliography

Ambrajechik A.A. 2000 Russian and English stories, the 4th collection, Minsk, “Popyrri”, 2009

Kachalova K.N. English practical grammar, Moscow, “Lad Com”, 2008

Kunin A.V. English-Russian grammar dictionary, Moscow, “Russian language”, 1984

Mullera V.K. English-Russian dictionary, Moscow, “Ripol classiak, 2009

Oshurkova I.M. English-Russian countries dictionary, “DROFA”, Moscow, 2002

Russian Yellow Pages, “Liberty”, New York, 1995

www.wikipedia.ru (nicknames of the states of the USA)

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/nickname

Баграмова Н.В., Воронцова Т.И. «Книга для чтения по страноведению. Соединенные Штаты Америки. Страна и люди», С-Петербург, «Союз», 1999



www.znanitypics.com



1 http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/nickname

2 Баграмова Н.В., Воронцова Т.И. «Книга для чтения по страноведению. Соединенные Штаты Америки. Страна и люди», С-Петербург, Союз,1999

3 Russian Yellow Pages, “Liberty”, New York, 1995

4 Russian Yellow Pages, “Liberty”, New York, 1995

5 www.zvanitypics.com

6 www.wikipedia.ru (nicknames of the states of USA)





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