Разработка урока по учебной дисциплине «Английский язык» - страница №1/1
(2012/13 учебный год)
Государственное автономное образовательное учреждение среднего профессионального образования Новосибирской области «Искитимский медицинский техникум»
Номинация конкурса: Педагогические идеи и технологии:
Методическая разработка урока
по учебной дисциплине
Тема: “Лекарственные растения (Medical Plants)”
Автор– Гаврилова Е.Н.,преподаватель иностранных языков
ГАОУ СПО НСО «ИМТ», первая квалификационная категория.
Место выполнения работы: ГАОУ СПО НСО «Искитимский медицинский техникум», г. Искитим Новосибирской области.
Современная медицинская сестра более не является бессловесным манипулятором. Роль медицинской сестры заключается в обеспечении физической и психологической поддержки здоровых и больных людей, оценке состояния здоровья отдельных лиц, в укреплении здоровья, предупреждении заболеваний, в обеспечении и поддержании здоровой обстановки, в участии в санитарном просвещении, осуществлении совместно с врачом медицинского обслуживания, предоставлении рекомендаций, проведении реабилитационных мероприятий.
От медицинской сестры ожидается оказание широкого спектра вневрачебных услуг, в том числе консультирования в отношении здорового образа жизни, организации патронажа и помощи на дому, деятельного участия в реабилитации.
Кроме того, как показывает статистика, более 60% медицинской информации публикуется на английском языке, поэтому наши выпускники должны уметь понимать профессионально-ориентированные тексты.
Главная структурная особенность содержания обучения заключается в его делении на два модуля: основной, который осваивается всеми обучающимися независимо от профиля профессионального образования, и профессионально направленный (вариативный).
Изучение содержания основного модуля направлено на коррекцию и совершенствование навыков и умений, сформированных в основной школе. В ходе освоения профессионально направленного модуля проводится изучение языка с учетом профиля профессионального образования, конкретной специальности СПО.
Разрабатывая данное занятие, я учитывала профессиональный профиль образовательного учреждения. Знание фитотерапии очень важно для будущих медицинских работников.
На занятиях я сочетаю, как традиционные методы обучения, так и новые информационные технологии. Презентации для занятий готовлю сама и подключаю к этому творческому процессу обучающихся. Предварительно знакомлю ребят с тематикой, объявляю основные критерии, по которым будет оцениваться их работа, знакомлю с методикой работы над презентацией и устанавливаю сроки сдачи работ. В период изготовления творческих работ предлагаю консультации. Защита презентации осуществляется в устной форме на английском или русском языках, учитывая уровень знаний и способностей студентов.
- словесные: устные и письменные ответы студентов на вопросы, прием угадывания растений по рисункам, рассказ учителя.
- практические: работа с текстом и справочной литературой (словарем).
По дисциплине «Английскияй язык» студент должен знать:
студент должен уметь:
Средства обучения: компьютер, проектор, экран, презентация «Лекарственные травы», терминологический словарь, сборник текстов, словари.
1). С.А. Тылкина, Н.А.Темчина «Пособие по английскому языку для медицинских училищ», АНМИ – Москва 2002,
2). «Пособие по английскому языку для фармацевтических училищ» (под редакцией М.С. Пастернака), АНМИ – Москва 2004,
3). Интернет – ресурс: http://www.liveandfeel.com/medicinalplants.html.
Продолжительность занятия – 90 минут.
Vocabulary “Medical Plants”
A leaf (leaves)
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The TASK: Match the plant to its properties! (Соотнеси растение и его свойства!)
1. Ginkgo Biloba – гинко билоба
2. Birch Tree - береза
3. Jasmine - жасмин
4. Burdock - чертополох
5. Lime - липа
6. Pumpkin - тыква
7. Chamomile - ромашка
8. Mint - мята
9. Soy- соя
10. Valerian - валериана
11. Senna - сенна
12. Aloe -алоэ
13. Fox-gloves - наперстянка
14. Licorice – лакричник (солодка)
Дидактический материал к занятию –
Сборник текстов «Лекарственные травы»
Text 1. Ginkgo Biloba
This plant grows spontaneous in China and Japan and it is grown in many countries not only because it enriches the visual aspect of any land but also for its therapeutic uses. In ancient times, Japanese people used to grow this herb inside the gardens of temples and today they venerate the old ginkgo trees as gods. A gingko tree can grow up to 30 meters tall. The flowers determine the masculine or feminine type of the tree. The leaves change their color from light green in summer to yellow in fall.
The pharmaceutical action of the herb is given by the complexity of the chemical substances contained by the leaves. They contain flavonoids and terpenoids (ginkgolide, A,B,C, bilobalide). It has many alleged no-otropic properties, and is mainly used as a memory and concentration enhancer.
Due to the fact that it has multiple effects on human health, gingko Biloba can be used in cases of hearing and memory loss, in treating tuberculosis, gonorrhea, stomach pains, skin diseases, leucorrhea, angina pectoralis, dysenteries, high blood tension, vertigo and anxiety. It can be also used to treat impotence caused by the treatment with anti-depressives.
It helps in cases of asthma and bronchitis because of the contained flavonoids and it also contains an inhibitor that reduces blood clots. It can be used to treat blood pressure problems.
The critical illnesses such as benign tumor, cancer, diabetes, cardiac ischemia, hormonal disorders can be treated with the help of this herb. It is highly efficient even in the treatment of Alzheimer because it increases the secretion of dopamine and noradrenalin and also the tonus of the smooth muscles that cover the brain blood vessels.
It can also be used for unguents against cellulitis because it activates the microcirculation. When it is used in the composition of shampoos, gingko biloba stimulates blood circulation at the scalp level.
The consumption of gingko biloba can cause vertigo, headaches and allergic reactions. It isn't recommended to use gingko biloba mixtures if you are having an anticoagulant treatment.
Text 2. Jasmine
Jasmine is a flowery shrub containing white or yellow flowers, native to Mediterranean countries.
The flowers can be small or large, white with a nice perfume that increases in strength in the evening. Jasmine grows quickly.
The Chinese civilization drinks green tea during the spring and summer times as well as in autumn and especially in winter, jasmine tea. From jasmine flowers it is extracted the well-known and highly expensive oil. The herb has the power to eliminate the stress and depression, and it can help regain self-confidence. The jasmine flowers are used in biotherapy and perfume industry.
The fresh jasmine flowers contain a high amount of etheric oil. Beside this oil, the flowers also contain benzilic acetate, linalcohol, benzilic alcohol, indole and jasmon. All these substances confer jasmine aphrodisiac properties. They also help the acceleration of metabolism, they improve the blood circulation.
The tea can be used to treat headaches, coughing and the macerate for rheumatism.
In aromatherapy, the jasmine oil is recommended for any kind of physical pain. Even more, it is a powerful antiseptic, sedative and tonic recommended for breathing difficulties, coughing and nervous debility. It also calms any skin affliction and it can be used in small amounts for calming pains.
The jasmine tea is known by the majority of nutritionists as being an adjuvant in losing weight. The taste of one jasmine tea cup is sweet and combined with green tea will offer powerful tonic and energetic results. The jasmine tea helps an organism relax and regain its strength in the stress or physically and psychic overworking periods.
The adepts of the aromatherapy use this jasmine oil in combination with drops of ylang ylang oil. This mixture helps regaining the healthy state of mind and body.
It isn't recommended to consume jasmine tea in big quantities, especially in cases of pregnancy. It is also not recommended to consume jasmine tea on an empty stomach, to prevent causing high acidity. After 5 pm it is best if the consumption of jasmine tea is ceased to prevent insomnia.
Text 3. Burdock.
It was one of the most important traditional cures. The leaves were placed on wounds, infections, swellings, adenophaty, etc.
It was also placed on the head against twinges. When the skin was fire-hot, the green leaf was placed on the skin. People suffering from typhoid fever placed leaves on their head to "suck away the evil disease".
In some regions, mothers would anoint their children with buttered burdock leaves, after taking them out of the bath tub.
Children were sometimes covered with leaves if they had cramps. The leaves wet with vinegar were a cure for lower back pain, buttered with butter or fat, for chest pain, but only slightly burnt in fire, for twinges and heart aches.
Chemical composition of Burdock
Potassium nitrate, ethereal oil, mucilage, inulin, palmitic acid, caffeic acid, sigmasterol, sitosterol, bitter substances, vitamins B, mineral salts including potassium ones, etc.
Aromatic, calms down intestinal tormina, absorbs gases, galactagog, reduces nausea, intestinal antiseptic, stimulates digestion, diuretic, renal anti-inflammatory effect, calms down headaches, expectorant, pulmonary antiseptic, gastric anti-inflammatory effect, effects against tumors, effective against light diarrhea. The most toxic part of the plant is the root and it can cause digestive disorder, heavy sweat, nephritis, polyuria or anuria, but with a good recovery time because all symptoms stop when the plant is no longer consumed.
One should also add that is stops infections from appearing and it very effective against germs multiplying. It has an anti-thermal action. It is an excellent astringent and it help the detoxify process in the organism. It moderates and even adjust the secretions in the organism. It helps in the healing process. Due to the diuresis it produces, it is used in a series of liver conditions, gout, diabetes, for those who want to reduce their cholesterol. In dermatological conditions it is very useful from the most frequent and diverse conditions to the most serious ones: cancer. It helps the healing process in all cases.
The lime is a tall tree, reaching 20-40m, with big heart shaped leafs. The flowers have a yellowish-white color and a strong perfume. Lime is one of the most longevous trees, able to reach the age of 1000 years and to produce up to 100 kg of flowers.
Lime flowers have in their composition sugar, gallic and catechol acids, and also essential oil, which give the plant neurosedative and antispastic properties, reducing inflammations of the respiratory system.
Having a sudorific, antithermic, emollient and expectorant action, lime is used as a tea for treating colds and influenza.
Lime flowers have a calming effect and help eliminate bronchic secretions. Associated with chamomile and mint, lime flowers ease digestion and tonify the gastric mucous. Lime flower tea mixed with sodium bicarbonate is used as throat wash for inflammations of the tonsils. In cosmetics, combined with cornflower flowers, helps reduce dark rings under the eyes. It is also used for calming irritated complexions.
The compress of lime flower infusion mixed with corn flowers is kept on the eyelids for 10-15 minutes before bed to reduce the dark rings under the eyes.
Lime flower mask with properties of nourishing and reviving pale complexions is made from 4 spoonfuls of lime infusion, a spoonful of milk powder and one of wheat bran. They are mixed until a paste is obtained which is kept on the face for 10-15 minutes. It is then washed off with lime infusion.
It is recommended to not have more than 3 cups of tea per day and to not use infusions which are too concentrated. If the doses are too big, the lime flower tea can have exciting effects on the nervous system, causing insomnia.
Text 5. Pumpkin
Because of its delicious and perfumed taste, the pumpkin is a favorite for many people. It is a vegetable with many uses: used as a basis for food, an ingredient for sweets and medicine, pumpkin is well known because of Halloween, when it is carved in the shape of a face and lit with candles to banish evil spirits.
Having a yellowish-orange color, pumpkin is rich in anti-oxidants and beta-carotene. Beta-carotene is a vitamin that can be converted by the body into vitamin A. This helps the body in its process of regeneration, slowing down the aging process. Pumpkin pulp contains vitamins, especially pro-vitamin A, vitamins E and C, salts and minerals, carbon hydrates, and proteins.
Pumpkin seeds contain the strongest therapeutic effects. These help in eliminating intestinal parasites, cleaning blood vessels, adjusting cholesterol level and stimulating kidney activity.
In treating cancer, leukemia, sclerosis, or various diseases which are hard to cure, pumpkin seeds have an energizing role.
Pumpkin oil extracted from the seeds is recommended for reducing excess cholesterol. Pumpkin offers protection against heart diseases by containing antioxidants.
The vegetable has a laxative action, being useful in case of dyspepsia and constipation. Fried pumpkin is healthy for those who suffer from heart diseases.
Pumpkin juice is indicated for ulcer and high acidity. It has to be drunk three times a day, half an hour before meals. It is also useful in cases of insomnia, having sedative properties.
Pumpkin is also indicated in cases of hormonal disorders or adolescent behavior, menopause disorder, intestinal parasites or sexual hyper-excitability. In external use, pumpkin is recommended for treating burns, inflammations and abscesses. It softens the skin and diminishes the inflammatory processes of mucous.
A number of hydrating and anti-wrinkle creams contain pumpkin.
As a juice, it is used in treating cancer and vascular diseases.
In ancient times, chamomile was used to control neuralgia and rheumatism (especially the articular one) and the ancient Egyptians used it to decrease fever. It is also mentioned in old books about medicinal plants that chamomile's oil drives away fatigue from the limbs.
Properties of Chamomile plant
Chamomile flowers contain: essential oils (etheric oil: 0.38 - 0.81%), vitamins B1 and C, mineral substances (phosphorus, potassium, silicon, iron, manganese, calcium, copper, lead, zinc, zirconium), glucides, lipids (in small quantities) and acids. The plant has calming, analgesic, disinfecting and antiseptic, antispasmotic and tonic actions. Because of its antiseptic (it destroys the microorganisms) and decongestive properties, chamomile also has many aplications in cosmetics, being recommended for irritated, damaged or fat complexions.
Treatments and mixtures
Chamomile can be used for an entire series of afflictions and diseases. No matter if we're talking about gingivitis, dental abscess (and dental pains generally), tonsillectomy, stomatitis, hyperacid gastritis, ulcer, enterocolitis, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, flues, colds, sinusitis, bronchic asthma, rheumatism or insomnia, chamomile is a true adjuvant. Being a good sedative, it can be used against stress and anxiety. Chamomile also helps to drive away menstrual problems (as amenorrhea) and other pelvic diseases.
In preparing this infusion, a teaspoon of chamomile flowers is added to a liter of boiled water. The mixture is left a few minutes before being consumed. Inhaling the vapors emanated by the infusion helps in healing colds and sinusitis if the patient remains in a warm place. The tea can be administered to children, when they suffer from bad dispositions, cramps or colics - abdominal pains. Used externally, the infusion can be added to the bath water (four handfuls of flowers to a bathtub) or in the head washing water (one handful). The hair - especially the blond one - becomes silky and shiny. The complexion is also refreshed if it is cleaned with chamomile infusion. Also, conjunctivitis and eye inflammations heal faster with the help of this mixture. It can also be used for gargle (in cases of toothaches), cutaneous eruptions, or cleaning wounds.
Text 7. Mint
Mint has small violet or purple-white flowers that bloom all over its growing period. Depending on the type, the herb can grow up to 60 or 90cm tall. Because of its active compounds contained, mint has sedative, disinfectant and cicatrizing properties. It can be successfully used in gastro-intestinal disorders; it helps the liver and calms indigestion. It contains menthol, menthone, menthofuran, a-pentene, limonene, cardinene, acetic aldehide, isovaleriana, vitamin C and antibiotic substances.
Because of its menthol, mint has a very good action over the digestive system, causing a small anesthesia of the gastric mucous membrane. It also stimulates digestion. Mint can treat diarrhea, gastric fever or toxic infections. It stimulates the biliary secretion and helps the digestion of fats.
It is recommended in cases of asthma, bronchitis and the flu because of its antispasmodic and sedative properties. Sinusitis can be treated with mint also, because menthol is a vasodilatator of the nasal mucous membrane. Mental fatigue, stress, depressive states and headaches can be ameliorated if mint oil is applied over the temples and backhead.
Mint can be used to make tea, mouth rinse or mint oil. To make tea, you must boil one mint spoon of leaves in 200ml of water. The tea must be drunk cold, three times a day.
Rheumatism can be treated also with mint baths, obtained by boiling 200g of leaves in 3 liters of water and mixing the result with water at 37 degrees Celsius.
There are a few cautions regarding the use of mint oil: it is not recommended to use mint oil during pregnancy and lactation or to apply it on babies' skin. For external use, the mint oil must be diluted, no more than 30 drops of oil should be used in a skin cream.
Text 8. Soy
It is known and used as human food source for 5000 years, first in China, then in the Far East. Researches made about this plant indicate that soy can heal any health related problem.
Properties and benefits of Soy plant
Soy is an aliment which contains proteins, iron, vitamin C and is at the same time a rich source of fibers. Soy also contains isoflavonoids. The plant is also an excellent source of albumin, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and vitamin E.
Soy can be used in many types of food, being the basis for a number of totally or partially vegetarian diets. Soy has the power of healing many health problems, from reducing artherial pressure to maximizing the memory capacity of the human brain. The plant can also reduce the negative effects of menopause, calm hot flashes and blushing.
It reduces the level of cholesterol and reduces hypertension. Soy prevents the development of cancerous cells in some areas of the body. In osteoporosis, soy maintains the bone density and strengthens the immune system. Soy based foods are recommended for those suffering from diabetes since it controls the glycemia level. Also, it reduces inflammations.
In the body, we have healthy bacteria which are necessary for a good digestion and for a good functioning of the umanitary system in the fight against infections. Probiotics can be found in some unpasteurized and fermented soy products. These contain healthy bacteria and offer them protection against stomachal acids and other harmful bacteria which can destroy them. Soy eases anxiety symptoms. The plant is also used in treating obesity, against neurodegeneration or for improving the antioxidant status.
Because it contains many fibers, soy reduces the apparitional chances of renal or colon cancer. Soy beans have the quality of protecting against the development of prostate and mammary cancer.
Soy also contains lecithin, a substance which is essential for the good functioning of the brain. It also prevents the deposing of grease in the blood on the walls of the blood vessels, controls adenoma and has antioxidant properties.
Nutritionists recommend a daily share of 40-60 g of proteins from soy which can be taken from 1-1.5 l of soy milk or 150 g of tofu.
The leaves contain saponin, a bitter substance, mucilage, procatechinic tannin, essential oil, betulin, saccharose, resins. These substances offer the following properties to the birch leaves: diuretic, detoxifying, cicatrizing, anti-rheumatic, astringent, antiulcer, choleretic, slightly hypertensive, anti-fever.
Birch eliminates cholesterol from the blood, and disinfects the body. It is also efficient against liver diseases, ascitis, diarrhea, constipation or intestinal parasites. Cardiac edemas, originating in circulatory insufficiency, arterial hypertension, and atherosclerosis are also treated with the help of brews based on birch. It is also recommended in treating the flu, fevers, colds and chronic sinusitis. Also in internal use, it is used for easing headaches produced by hyperzotomy, dizziness, allergies and for tonifying the nervous system.
Through diuresis, it eliminates the excess of uric acid, toxins and water from the tissues, having an important role in eliminating cellulite and obesity. Birch leaf baths help strengthen hair roots, prevent the forming of dandruff and contribute to the healing of skin irritations.
The juice squeezed out of fresh leaves is used in treating infections and inflammations of the urinary tract, renal calculosis and edemas. The birch wood coal is chewed immediately after the manifestation of intoxication.
Externally, it is used for treating affections of the skin - dermatitis, eczemas, and furunculous.
The bark, rich in betulin and betulinic acid is used in the pharmaceutical industry. Ripped into bands and moistened in hot water, it can be used for immobilizing articulations or fractured arms.