Практикум по английскому языку для студентов-дизайнеров: Практикум / М. В. Даричева. - страница №1/1
ББК 81.2 Англ.
Практикум предназначен для проведения практических занятий по английскому языку у студентов 2, 3 курсов, очной формы обучения, специальности 072500.62 Дизайн, а также у студентов 2 курса, очной формы обучения, специальности 051000.62 Профессиональное обучение (Дизайн). Данное пособие содержит задания, способствующие усвоению профессионально-иноязычного лексического материала и закреплению умений профессионально-ориентированного чтения, письма и говорения.
© Даричева М.В., 2012
© НГПУ, 2012
Данный практикум содержит подборку текстов по темам «Стили искусства» и «Виды дизайна», а также систему предтекстовых и послетекстовых упражнений, которые обеспечивают эффективное практическое овладение иностранным языком. Все задания способствуют достижению основных целей обучения иностранному языку студентов-дизайнеров, а именно расширение профессионально-иноязычного тезауруса, развитие навыков и умений чтения и перевода профессионально-ориентированной литературы, развитие профессионально-иноязычной устной речи. Содержание пособия соответствует утвержденным рабочим программам по предмету «Иностранный язык» с учетом специфики неязыкового вуза.
1. ART STYLES
1. Read and translate the words
2. Complete the definitions by using the words from exercise 1
1) … - an artistic movement begun in Italy in 1909, which strongly rejected traditional forms and embraced the energy and dynamism of modern technology. Launched by Filippo Marinetti, it had effectively ended by 1918 but was widely influential, particularly in Russia on figures such as Malevich and Mayakovsky.
2) … - a style of painting, which began in France in the 1860s, in which the artist tries to represent the effects of light on an object, person, area of countryside, etc.
3) … - art that does not attempt to represent external, recognizable reality but seeks to achieve its effect using shapes, forms, colors, and textures.
4) … - a type of modern art that started in the 1960s and uses images and objects from ordinary life.
5) … - the heavily decorated style in buildings, art and music that was popular in Europe in the 17th century and the early part of the 18th century.
6) … - a style of decoration that was especially popular in the 1930s and uses simple shapes and lines and strong colours.
7) … - a style of building which was common in Europe between the 12th and the 16th centuries, and which has pointed arches and windows, high ceilings and tall, thin columns.
8) … - a style of art, music and literature that was common in Europe in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which describes the beauty of nature and emphasizes the importance of human emotions.
9) … - a style in painting, sculpture and building, based on particular standards in Greek and Roman art, which was especially popular during the 18th and 19th centuries in Europe.
10) … - a style or movement in the arts that aims to depart significantly from classical and traditional forms.
11) … - a movement in sculpture and painting which arose in the 1950s, characterized by the use of simple, massive forms.
12) … - a style of modern art in which an object or person is shown as a set of geometric shapes and as if seen from many different angles at the same time.
13) … - the revival of European art and literature under the influence of classical models in the 14th-16th centuries.
14) … - a style (chiefly in architecture and interior design) that uses materials, such as steel, glass, and plastic, that are associated with industrial use.
15) … - an artistic or literary movement or style characterized by the representation of people or things as they actually are.
3. Define the style of the following objects of art and architecture. Use your ideas and the definitions of art styles and explain your choice
I think that the building is constructed in the style of … , because … .
I think that the picture is painted in the style of … , because … .
Cubism - a style of modern art in which an object or person is shown as a set of geometric shapes and as if seen from many different angles at the same time.
I think that the picture is painted in the style of cubism, because the object (the person) is shown as a set of geometric shapes.
3. Choose any art style and describe it using the following phrases:
1. Read the following words. Mind their meaning
immediate непосредственный, немедленный
ribbed ребристый, рифленый
austere строгий, простой, чистый
perfection безупречность, совершенство
transept поперечный неф
lantern фонарь верхнего света
spectator зритель, очевидец
2. Read the following verbs. Pay attention to the principal forms
to succeed ( - ed; - ed) следовать за чем-либо, наследовать
to evolve ( - ed; - ed) развиваться
to derive ( - ed; - ed) происходить
to find (found; found) находить
to cause ( - ed; - ed) вызывать, являться результатом
to encourage ( - ed; - ed) ободрять, поощрять, поддерживать
to become (became; become) становиться
to assume ( - ed; - ed) принимать, предполагать
to demolish ( - ed; - ed) разрушать, сносить
3. Find proper translation to the following words
style, classical, dominant, to characterize, order, arch, symmetrical, harmony, composition, proportion, human, perspective, expression, mass, interior, exterior, element, to formulate, column, portion, sphere, manner, façade, plan, altar, diameter, motif
4. Choose the proper English word
1) средство a) style b) device c) composition
2) зритель a) spectator b) interior c) successor
3) ширина a) diameter b) width c) height
4) понимание a) portion b) manner c) comprehension
5) трактат a) treatise b) motif c) order
6) длина a) exterior b) length c) perspective
7) поперечный неф a) pilaster b) sphere c) transept
5. Find English equivalents for the following Russian words
A непосредственный, строгий, ребристый, развиваться, вызывать, происходить, предполагать, наследовать, разрушать, поддерживать
В to assume, to encourage, ribbed, to demolish, to derive, immediate, to succeed, to evolve, austere, to cause
6. Form all possible word combinations
A architectural B buildings
rebirth of classical art; to derive from two sources; ancient classical buildings; to use classical orders; proportions of the human body; pictorial device of perspective; definition of architectural space; immediate and full comprehension; well–organized urban spaces; great skill; interior of buildings; linear perspective; basic element; fluted pilasters; unribbed vaults; the austere façade; the highest degree of perfection; Christian world
This architectural style developed in early 15th century Italy during the rebirth of classical art and learning. It succeeded the Gothic as the style dominant in all of Europe after the mid 16th century into classicism.
Knowledge of the classical style in architecture was derived during the Renaissance from two sources: the ancient classical buildings, particularly in Italy but also in France and Spain and the treatise “De architectura” by the Roman architect Vitruvius. Initially it was characterized by the use of the classical orders, round arches, and symmetrical composition.
The Renaissance architects found a harmony between the proportions of the human body and those of their architecture. There was even a relationship between architectural proportions and the Renaissance pictorial device of perspective.
The concern1 of these architects for proportion caused that clear, measured2 expression and definition of architectural space and mass that differentiates the Renaissance style from the Gothic and encourages3 in the spectator an immediate and full comprehension of the building.
Churches, palaces, gardens, and well-organized open, urban spaces are the architectural works most often associated with this time. Great skill was expressed in ordering the interior of buildings, frequently using the same motifs as had been traditionally associated with the exterior.
Filippo Brunelleschi4 (1377-1446) is said to have created the Renaissance. In the early 15th century he formulated linear perspective, which was to become a basic element of Renaissance art. His basic vocabulary – fluted pilasters carrying entablatures5, columns supporting arches, unribbed vaults which are portions of the surface of a sphere – appears in his brilliant work, Ospedale degli Innocenti6 (1419-51) in Florence. It was the first building in the Renaissance manner.
The austere Tuscan Doric7 façade of Donato Bramante’s (1444-1514) Tempietto San Pietro8 in Montorio (1502) symbolized the beginning of the early 16th century High Renaissance in Rome.
The Italian Renaissance is assumed to have achieved the highest degree of perfection at that time. In 1505 Pope9 Julius II decided to demolish Old St. Peter’s and to build St. Peter’s Cathedral, the work of many architects, beginning with Bramante, whose ground plan10 was later changed from a Greek cross to a Latin cross. St. Peter’s Cathedral is the largest church in the high Christian world. It has 29 altars in addition to the high altar, interior length 187 m., width at front, 26,5 m., length of transept, 137 m. The dome (diameter, 42 m., height, 123 m. to the top of the lantern) was built by Michelangelo.
1) The Renaissance is assumed to have reinitiated classical details.
2) The Renaissance succeeded the Baroque.
3) The Renaissance was characterized by the use of asymmetrical composition.
4) It is stated that Bramante was the initiator of the Renaissance.
5) It was Filippo Brunelleschi who formulated linear perspective.
6) St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome is assumed to represent the High Renaissance.
1) The Renaissance developed in…
a) France b) Italy c) Russia
2) The treatise “De architectura” was a handbook of the … architects.
a) Renaissance b) Baroque c) Gothic
3) The Renaissance is characterized by measured expression and definition of…
a) pointed arches b) architectural space c) curved surfaces
4) Linear perspective was formulated in the early … century.
a) 14th b) 15th c) 16th
5) The plans for St. Peter’s Cathedral were prepared by…
a) Brunelleschi b) Pope Julius II c) Bramante
1) When and where did the Renaissance begin?
2) What were the main sources of knowledge of the classical style in architecture?
3) What was the basic element of Renaissance art?
4) Who was the first to formulate and show the Renaissance system of perspective?
5) What was the first building in the Renaissance manner?
6) What is the largest Church in the Christian world?
7) What phase of the Renaissance does the St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome represent?
4. Translate the sentences into English. Use words and phrases from the text “The Renaissance” and ex.3, p.7
1) Представители этого стиля использовали в архитектуре рифленые пилястры, гладкие своды, колонны, поддерживающие арки.
2) Данный стиль утверждает принципы классического, античного искусства.
3) Архитектурными образцами, спроектированными в этом стиле, являются церкви, дворцы, хорошо организованные городские пространства.
4) Лучшими традициями этого стиля являются классические ордеры, круглые арки, симметричная композиция, линейная перспектива.
5) Гармония между пропорциями человеческого тела и архитектурой отличает данный стиль.
6) Самым ярким свидетельством данного стиля является Собор св. Петра в Риме.
7) Типичными чертами стиля являются архитектурные пропорции и перспектива.
8) Представителями Ренессанса в архитектуре являются Филиппо Брунеллески и Донато Браманте.
This text is about …
This topic (subject, problem) presents some (much) interest for those who study…
This topic (subject, problem) presents some importance for those who are interested in …
The author points out / mentions / says / emphasizes / draws our attention to the fact that …
It is necessary to say / mention / emphasize that …
It should be said / mentioned / pointed out / stressed / emphasized that…
Firstly / secondly / finally
Besides / also / moreover / then / after that
On the one hand…, on the other hand… / however
The author gives some interesting / useful examples of …
There are some interesting / useful examples illustrating …
To sum it up / In conclusion, I’d like to say that …
The author arrives to the following conclusions…
1. Read the text and fill in the chart below about the main features of the Baroque and Rococo
Baroque and Rococo
Baroque and late Baroque, or Rococo, are terms applied to European art of the period from the early 17th century to the mid 18th century.
The word “baroque” was derived from the Italian word “baroque”. This word also meant irregular or imperfect form, especially with reference to pearl.
The Baroque style is characterized by spatially complex compositions, interpenetration11 of oval spaces, curved surfaces and remarkable use of decoration broken pediments, paired or coupled columns or pilasters. The Baroque art was essentially concerned with vivid12 colours, hidden13 light sources, luxurious materials and elaborate14, contrasting surface textures. There was a tremendous richness of motifs-festoons of flowers and fruits, masks, scrolls, wreaths and weapons. During the Baroque period, architecture, painting and sculpture were integrated into decorative ensembles. Architects used sculpture to support the members of a building, painters decorated the walls and vaults of churches with false architectural perspectives, sculptors introduced colour in their works in the spirit of a painter.
The Baroque rapidly developed into two separate forms: the strongly Roman Catholic counties (Italy, Spain, Portugal, Flanders, Bohemia, Southern Germany, Australia and Poland) tended toward freer and more active architectural forms and surfaces; in Protestant regions (England, the Netherlands and the remainder of Northern Europe) architecture was more restrained15 and developed a quiet monumentality impressive in its refinement16.
The greatest works of this style are Dome des Invalides by Hardouin-Mansart 17(1); the church of Santa Susanna (2); Versailles (3); Royal Palace in Madrid (4); Royal Palace at Caserta (5).
1) 2) 3) 4) 5)
The Rococo is assumed to have been the late phase of the Baroque, primarily French in origin. The style was first inspired by the shell-encrusted artificial fountains and grottoes at Versailles. This style refined the robust18 architecture of the 17th century to suit elegant 18th century tastes. Vivid colours were replaced by pastel shades; diffuse19 light flooded the building volume; violent surface relief was replaced by smooth flowing masses with emphasis only at isolated points. One can find intermingling20 of shells, C - and S - scrolls21, rocks, seaweed22, ribbons and carving and irregular acanthus foliation23. Churches and palaces still demonstrated an integration of the three arts, but the building structure was lightened to render interiors graceful and ethereal24. Rococo architects reduced column size to a minimum. In churches, the ceilings of side aisles were raised to the height of the nave ceiling unify the space from wall to wall.
The finest examples of the Rococo style are Church of the "Madonna del Carmine", Turin, Italy (1732) (1); The Steinhausen Church of Pilgrimage, Germany (1728) (2); Saint - Jacques, Luneville, France (1730) (3).
1) 2) 3)
2. Choose the sentences which correspond to the contents of the text
1) Baroque is a term applied to European Art of the early 15th century.
2) The word “baroque” was used to describe an irregular or imperfectly shaped pearl only.
3) The Baroque style was concerned with bright colours, hidden light sources and contrasting surface textures.
4) Cheap materials were used during the Baroque period.
5) The Rococo is considered to be the late phase of the Baroque.
6) The Rococo style is assumed to have appeared in France.
7) During the Rococo period there was no more integration of architecture, painting and sculpture.
3. Answer the questions
1) How is the word “Baroque” defined?
2) What are the main features of the Baroque?
3) What outstanding Baroque architects do you know?
4) When did the Rococo appear?
5) What are typical characteristics of the Rococo?
4. Use the clichés from ex. 5, p. 14 and write the retelling of the text “Baroque and Rococo”
1. Read the text
High-tech style embraces an industrial look, in which the decor and the building itself are obviously very influenced by technology. High-tech buildings are often created from such materials as heavy steel girders25, a metal deck plate26, metal shelves often seen in hospitals and factories, and a concrete structure. The outside of the building, instead of being opaque27, is often made entirely of windows or mirrored glass, not stressing the decorative outside of the building but revealing the skeleton of the building itself.
High-tech style can be seen in almost any city in the world.
One of the most well-known examples of high-tech style is the Swiss Re building28 in London – more commonly known as The Gherkin29, because of its distinctive, peaked shape. Designed by British architect Norman Foster, the building is the sixth tallest in London, and stands out from the background of centuries-old buildings from miles around. The Gherkin was opened in 2004, and has been featured in a number of television shows and movies, quickly becoming one of London's most recognized modern symbols. Also in London is the Lloyd's Building, which is unique as all of its staircases, elevators, ventilation shafts and piping are on the outside of the building.
High-tech style made its first appearances after World War II. Much of Europe – from England all the way across the continent – had been ravaged31 by war, leaving countless buildings destroyed. When the time came to rebuild, designers and architects replaced many of the old edifices32 with ones done in a forward-thinking, new style that was intended to show something new rising from the ashes of destruction.
Also, the postwar era was a time when scientific advances were taking the world by storm, from advances in industrial and medical practices to science and technology. This new world was undeniable33, and was reflected heavily in the buildings that were being developed at the time.
The name "high-tech style" came about in 1978, and was coined34 by a pair of home-design specialists: Joan Kron and Suzanne Slesin. Their book, "High Tech: The Industrial Style and Source Book for The Home," shared ideas for bringing the high-tech look into the home.
High-Tech in the Home
High-tech style isn't just for the outside of a building; it's also hugely popular indoors as well.
The style stresses an industrial look. Pipes can be worked into the decor of the home, instead of hidden in a cupboard or closet. Elements of a high-tech room can include factory lighting; partial room dividers made of glass bricks; warehouse or hospital shelving35 painted in flamboyant colors; work benches for countertops36; and office chairs for furniture. Steel appliances and even dishes can accent the style, as can geometric patterns in floors and walls.
High-tech style came about when architects and designers were looking for a way to liven up modern architecture. In many places, any sort of modern architecture had been replaced with economy buildings, as well as homes, apartment buildings and office buildings that appeared to have been made from a mold37. The high-tech style not only showed a rebellious attitude on the part designers who were willing to try something completely different, but also displayed impressive faith in what was to come. Technological advances were on everyone's mind, and this high-tech style leaned away from traditional architecture and more toward science fiction and the world of tomorrow.
2. Answer the questions
1) When did the high-tech style appear?
2) What are the typical features of this style?
3) What are the most famous architectural models constructed in this style?
4) What are the main characteristics of high-tech interior?
Futurism was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century. It emphasized and glorified themes associated with contemporary concepts of the future, including speed, technology, youth and violence, and objects such as the car, the airplane and the industrial city. It was largely an Italian phenomenon, though there were parallel movements in Russia, England and elsewhere. The Futurists practiced in every medium of art, including painting, sculpture, ceramics, graphic design, industrial design, interior design, theatre, film, fashion, textiles, literature, music, architecture and even gastronomy.
Key figures of the movement include the Italians Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Gino Severini, Giacomo Balla, Antonio Sant’Elia, Tullio Crali and Luigi Russolo, and the Russians Natalia Goncharova, Velimir Khlebnikov, and Vladimir Mayakovsky. Important works include its seminal piece of the literature, Marinetti’s Manifesto of Futurism, as well as Boccioni’s sculpture, Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, and Balla’s painting, Abstract Speed + Sound (pictured). Futurism influenced art movements such as Art Deco, Constructivism, Surrealism, Dada38, and to a greater degree, Rayonism39 and Vorticism40.
2. Choose any type of design and describe it using the following phrases
1. Read the text
Design in Advertisement. Pop Art
Design in business and advertisement means much. The story of style in the applied arts since the mid-to late fifties has been dominated by various new forces, including social and economic factors and certain aspects of technical and scientific progress. Now we have computer design, web design, advertisement design (for example consumer-product branding design) and the whole fashion of different types of ad, colors and so on.
The late fifties saw the birth of advertising as we know it today, a high-powered business dedicated to the development effective marketing techniques; it involved new design concepts and a whole new professional jargon of product packaging42, market research, corporate images and house style.
The Pop Art movement embraced the work of a new generation of artists of late fifties and early sixties of both sides of the Atlantic. In Britain, in addition to the Independent Group, there were Peter Blake, Allen Jones. In USA Jasper Johns, Tom Wesselman, Claes Oldenburg and other formalized the language of product packaging, from beer cans to Campbell's Soup tins of strip cartoons43, fast food, advertising hoardings44 and pin-ups.
Spoonbridge and Cherry, sculpture by Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen, 1985–88; in the Minneapolis Sculpture Garden of the Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minn
Pop Art at once reflected and glorified mass-market culture and injected a new vigour into the applied arts. Pop Art suggested a new palette оf colours and gave a fresh, ironical edge to the imagery of popular culture. Pop Art positively encouraged designers to exploit vulgarity, brashness45 and bright colour, and to use synthetic or disposable46 materials in contexts in which they would formerly have been unacceptable. Pop Art has had a lasting effect on design in a wide variety of media, including interiors, graphics and fashion.
2. Find the English equivalents in the text
прикладное искусство, различные силы, рекламный дизайн, дизайн торговой марки продукта, эффективные технологии, общие образы, движение, культура массового рынка, предложил новую палитру, ранее, продолжительный эффект, широкий выбор
3. Find the synonyms in the text
energetic (vigorous), to devote, idea, to make famous, power (energy), offer, to inspire, to use, available, inadmissible, inside of the house, vogue
4. True or false?
1) Pop Art appeared in the middle of the twentieth century.
2) Pop Art is a style in the applied arts.
3) A high-powered business had no intention to invest money into advertising.
4) The appearance of Pop Art is connected with the development of advertising.
5) The concept of Pop Art is against mass-media culture.
6) The Pop Art movement left an insignificant trace in the sphere of design.
1) Рекламный дизайн является одним из важных аспектов эффективной маркетинговой технологии.
2) Поп-арт привнес новую силу в сферу прикладного искусства.
3) Представители направления поп-арт использовали новую палитру цветов.
4) Поп-арт вдохновил декораторов использовать яркую и дерзкую палитру цветов для дизайна интерьера.
1) Is design important in business and advertisement? Why?
2) What factors influenced the applied arts in the middle of the 20th century?
3) When did advertising appear? Why did it start developing rapidly?
4) What types of design are there nowadays?
5) When and where did the Pop Art movement come into being?
6) What is Pop Art? What does it deal with?
7) What are the features of the Pop Art style?
Use the answers from this exercise, the phrases from ex.2, p.24 and retell the text “High-tech style”.
7. Use the clichés from ex. 5, p. 14 and write the retelling of the text “High-tech style”.
1. Read the text
Industrial Design is an applied art whereby the aesthetics it improves usability of products. Design aspects specified by the industrial designer may include the overall shape of the object, the location of details with respect to one another, colour, texture, sounds, and aspects concerning the use of the product ergonomics. Additionally, the industrial designer may specify aspects concerning the production process, choice of materials and the presentation of a product to the consumer at the point of sale. Industrial designers make exclusive the visual design of objects. An industrial design consists of the creation of a shape, configuration or composition of pattern or colour, or combination of pattern and colour in three-dimensional form containing aesthetic value.
The use of industrial designers in a product development process improves usability, lowers production costs and leads to the appearance of more appealing products. It is important that in order to be an Industrial Design the product has to be produced in an industrial way, for example, an artisan47 cannot be considered an industrial designer, although he may challenge the same aspects of a product.
Some industrial designs are viewed as classic pieces that can be regarded as much as work of art as works of engineering.
Industrial design has a focus on concepts, products and processes. In addition to aesthetics, usability and ergonomics, it can also include the engineering of objects, usefulness as well as usability, market placement and other concerns.
Product Design and Industrial Design can overlap48 into the fields of interface design, information design and interaction design. Various schools of Industrial Design and/or Product Design may specialize in one of these aspects, ranging from pure art colleges (product styling) to mixed programmes of Engineering and Design, to related disciplines like exhibit design and interior design.
Прикладное искусство, форма объекта, расположение, производственный процесс, потребитель, пространственный (трехмерный), рисунок (узор), производственные цены, произведение инженерного искусства, концентрируется на, творческая деятельность, жизненные циклы
3. True or false?
1) Industrial design can help to improve usability of products.
2) Industrial design has no aesthetic value.
3) There are not any works of art among industrial designs.
4) Industrial design pays much attention to the aesthetic value of products.
5) Pure art colleges usually do not have any specialized programme for industrial design.
4. Answer the questions to the text:
1) What is industrial design? What does it deal with?
2) What does industrial design help to improve?
3) What aspects does an industrial designer usually pay attention to?
4) What does industrial design have focus on?
5) Does industrial design concentrate only on aesthetic, usability and ergonomics?
6) In what aspects can industrial design specialize?
1) to improve a) to perfect
b) to develop
c) to create
2) overall a) everywhere
4) appealing a) fascinating
6) crucial a) important
7) configuration a) confection
8) composition a) combination
1) … is a frame which supports the painting during its progress.
2) … is a copy of a work of art.
3) … is any public announcement designed to sell goods or publicize an event.
4) … is a large printed picture.
5) … is a picture or diagram used to explain or decorate a text.
6) … is the visual arts based on drawing or the use of line.
7) … is a mental picture of something produced by the imagination or memory.
8) … is the ideas, customs, and art of a particular society.
9) … is a state of peaceful agreement and cooperation.
10) … is the study of the rules and principles of art.
11) … is a branch of commercial enterprise concerned with the manufacture of a specified product.
12) … is the study of the relationship between workers and their environment.
13) … is a person who buys goods or uses services.
14) … is a distinct feature or element in a problem or situation.
1) “What … is the paint you bought?” “It’s red.”
2) The cloth has a … of red and white squares.
3) This picture is painted in dark … .
4) The … of the painting is very graceful.
5) The rough … of this material does not let us to use it in our work.
6) That was a badly designed … of the product.
7) The amazing … of these colours in this painting produces a unique effect.
Use these words in the sentences of your own
8. Use the clichés from ex. 5, p. 14 and write the retelling of the text “High-tech style”
1) Даричева М.В., Малинина И.А. English for Designers: Учебное пособие / М.В. Даричева, И.А. Малинина. – Н.Новгород: ВГИПУ, 2006 – 104 с.
2) Даричева М.В. Glossary for Designers (Словарь терминов для дизайнеров): Учебно-методическое пособие / М.В. Даричева. – Н.Новгород: ВГИПУ, 2008 г. – 25 с.
3) Зайцева И.В. Architecture (Архитектура): Методические указания по английскому языку / И.В Зайцева. – Оренбург: ГОУ ОГУ, 2003 – 76 с.
4) Электронный словарь ABBYY Lingvo 11: Англо-русский словарь общей лексики. 100 тыс. статей. © ABBYY Software, 2005.
1. Art Styles…………………………………………………………………………...4
3. Types of Design…………………………………………………………………..24
1 сoncern – внимательное отношение
2 measured - размеренный
3 encourages – зд. вдохновляет, вызывает
4 Филиппо Брунеллески (1377—1446) — итальянский архитектор, скульптор эпохи Возрождения.
5 entablature - антаблемент
6 Воспитательный дом (итал. Ospedale degli Innocenti) — приют для бездомных детей во Флоренции
7 Doric – дорический
8 Церковь св. Петра в Монторио
9 Pope – римский папа
10 ground plan - фундамент
11 interpenetration - взаимопроникновение
12 vivid - яркий
13 hidden - скрытый
14 elaborate – тщательно разработанный
15 restrained - сдержанный
16 refinement - утонченность
17 Собор Дома Инвалидов, архитектор Жюль Ардуэн-Мансар (1646—1708)
18 robust - грубоватый
19 diffuse – рассеянный
20 intermingling - смешение
21 scrolls - завитки
22 seaweed – морские водоросли
23 acanthus foliation - архит. рисунок в виде листвы (дуг из листвы), лиственный орнамент
24 ethereal - лёгкий, воздушный; деликатный, утончённый, изысканный
25 girders - балки
26 a metal deck plate – металлическая палубная втулка
27 opaque – матовый, непрозрачный
28 The Swiss Re building (the building of Swiss Reinsurance Company) = 30 St Mary Axe
29 a gherkin - корнишон
30 Институт исследования и координации акустики и музыки
31 to ravage – опустошать, разорять
32 an edifice - большой дом
33 undeniable - неоспоримый, несомненный, неопровержимый, явный
34 зд. был создан
35 a shelving – стеллаж
36 a countertop - столешница
37 a mold - шаблон
38 Дадаи́зм, или дада — модернистское течение в литературе, изобразительном искусстве, театре и кино.
39 Районизм (Лучизм) - абстрактное искусство, направление в живописи в русском искусстве 1910-х г.г., основанное на cмещении световых спектров и светопередачи.
40 Вортицизм - течение в изобразительном искусстве начала XX столетия в Англии, близкое к футуризму.
41 Giacomo Balla, Abstract Speed + Sound 1913-1914 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:GBallaArt.jpg)
42 packaging - упаковка
43 strip cartoons = comic cartoons - комиксы
44 hoardings – щиты для наклейки плакатов, объявлений
45 brashness - дерзость
46 disposable – доступный, наличный
47 an artisan – кустарь, мастеровой, ремесленник
48 to overlap – частично совпадать