Из истории естествознания. Опасные связи: И. И. Иванов и опыты скрещивания человека с человекообразными обезьянами, К. О. Россиянов - davaiknam.ru o_O
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Из истории естествознания. Опасные связи: И. И. Иванов и опыты скрещивания человека - страница №24/24



K. O. Rossiianov. Les liaisons dangereuses: 1.1. Ivanov and experiments on cross-breeding humans with apes. Attempts to crossbreed humans with apes took place in the Soviet Union during the 1920s. Although the experimenters' goals were primarily scientific, the larger symbolic meaning of those investigations cannot be ignored. Were those experiments a "denigration" or "desecration" of humans by soulless, manipulative science? Or were they, on the contrary, a human "liberation," the ultimate removal of the restrictive bond of the species, following the destruction of the social boundaries of class, estate, and nation? And would the creation of a hybrid have also meant "liberation" of the ape species closest to us? The issue of cultural symbolism is simultaneously an issue of moral judgment, one currently of particular importance, now that the rapid development of biotechnology has once again raised the possibility of creating "chimeras" and "hybrids" between human and animal.

R. A. Simonov. Whence came arithmetic in Russia: a predecessor of Kirik of Novgorod, hieromonk Isaakii. In 2000, the Novgorod archeological expedition under the direction of academician V. L. Yanin discovered the oldest Russian book, which dates from the first quarter of the 11th century. The book consists of several wooden plates for making wax tablets with inscriptions. Besides the main text containing psalms, edges and other parts of the plates include additional, barely visible inscriptions, the decoding of which was recently published by academician A. A. Zalizniak. The texts contain some mathematical inscriptions - the so-called "number alphabets" used for teaching numbers in a system written with letters. They also mention several times the year 6507 (999 AD), in which the monk Isaakii received the title of priest in Suzdal and became hieromonk. The inscriptions were made either by Isaakii himself (the most likely interpretation, according to Zalizniak) or by a professional scribe. One can conclude that the knowledge of arithmetic was used in ancient Rus at the end of the 10th century (999) for chronology, among other purposes. Hieromonk Isaakii can be considered in this regard a predecessor of Kirik of Novgorod, the earliest Russian mathematician known by name heretofore, who authored the mathematical and chronological treatise of 1136.

E. V. Novosad. Pollution of the Volga during the development of the Russian petroleum industry. The petroleum industry commenced development on the Volga in the second half of the 19th century. The Artemiev brothers pioneered the use of tankers in 1873, which helped the trade but damaged the river, because old wooden ships used for transportation of petroleum and its products leaked with even the slightest rolling. According to some estimates, up to 3 million puds (48,000 tons) of petroleum products leaked into the river water annually, resulting in the disappearance of gnats, locusts, and mosquitoes, as well as crawfish, and a decline in the fish population. The obvious damage did not lead to any immediate action due to the lack of legislation on water usage and protection. The adoption of such legislation was delayed by the on-going conflict between entrepreneurs from the petroleum and fish industries, which became apparent in 1878 and reached its height in 1892 - 93. While lawsuits dragged on, river pollution-continued. Only after the investigations of scientists such as Grimm, Chermak, Arnold, Ovsiannikov, Kuliabko, and Kuptsis, the "Regulations concerning the transportation of mineral oil, petroleum and its products" were adopted in 1904. They banned the use of wooden barges as tankers, but allowed a ten-year transitional period for their replacement.

D. Yu. Gouzevitch, I. D. Gouzevitch. First patents on steamships in Russia. The earliest idea for the steamship in Russia came from Kulibin, but he did not apply for patent privileges, and the government rejected his proposal as economically unviable. Fulton applied for a privilege to build steamships in Russia (decreed on 10 Dec. 1813), but he did not provide blueprints or

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pay dues and therefore retained the right to obtain the privilege only for three years. After his death, on 26 Mai 1815, Baird submitted an application, and later that year built a steamship and tested it in St. Petersburg both on the river Neva and also as a means of transportation to and from Kronstadt Island. Baird obtained the privilege in 1817 after the expiration of the one retained by Fulton's widow. Baird sold licenses to competitors (Vsevolozhsky, Rumiantsev, Poltoratsky) that made their firms subsidiaries of his own. The engineer Bazaine began working for him in 1815 on a theoretical treatise about steamships, and they later designed a new ship that was tested on the Volga in 1821 - 22. The paper provides an analysis of Baird's economic strategy and technological achievement.

T. I. Ul'iankina. "For the preservation of national Russian science" (history of the Russian academic group in the USA). Scientists who immigrated to the United States after the revolution of 1917 worked in difficult economic conditions and lacked certain rights, but they maintained a cohesive and active academic community. Divided by their political opinions and beliefs, they were nevertheless united by the idea of preserving the Russian tradition of academic science and culture that in their opinion had been destroyed in the USSR. One particular feature of the Russian academic diaspora was that, despite territorial divides, it did not disintegrate into closed immigrant communities, but maintained common interests and scientific and cultural contacts. On the whole, Russian emigre scientists in America pursued a wide spectrum of activities in locales ranging from large aviation firms to observatories, university centers, and laboratories. They contributed to and established professional, political, and youth organizations, schools and institutes, libraries and archives, theaters, and publishing houses.

E. F. Burshtein. Piotr Chikhachev (1808 - 1890): Riddles and "blank spots" in his biography. Piotr Chikhachev (1808 - 1890), a prominent 19th century geographer, geologist and explorer of Altai, Asia Minor, Italy, Spain, and North Africa, spent most of his life abroad and became a de facto expatriate. His works remained virtually unpublished in Russia until the second half of the 20th century. Simplistic views on the nature of his political emigration and his informal collaboration with the Russian Ministry of Foreign Relations now require reconsideration. The Foreign Ministry assisted Chikhachev in acquiring professional education in the natural sciences and also in his explorations, during which he fulfilled some special government assignments. Chikhachev formally resigned from state service and left Russia in 1838 with the approval of higher authorities. During the period between 1839 and the mid 1850's, while ostensibly an emigre, he maintained connections with Russian ministries. In the situation following the Anglo-Chinese war of 1840 - 42, he traveled in the Altay and Sayan mountains in the role of an independent explorer, but he was in fact funded by the Russian government and accompanied by a military topographer. In 1847 - 63 he traveled in the territory of Russia's strategic rival, the Turkish Empire, and produced a major 8-volume work Asie Mineure while also communicating important cartographic and statistical data to Russia. Chikhachev's emigration became more real during the subsequent reign of Alexander II, as reflected in a series of his publications on the Eastern question and other problems of European politics in which he held the Nicolas II regime responsible for the defeat in the Crimean war.

Translation by J. Wang

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Бабков Василий Васильевич - доктор биологических наук, ИИЕТ РАН

Бурштейн Ефим Фалькович - кандидат геолого-минералогических наук, МГУ

Быстрова Наталья Ивановна - научный сотрудник, ИИЕТ РАН

Гузевич Дмитрий Юрьевич - кандидат технических наук, Высшая школа социальных исследований (Париж)

Гузевич Ирина Дмитриевна - научный сотрудник, Центр исследований по истории науки и техники им. Александра Койре (Париж)

Земцов Александр Николаевич - кандидат геолого-минералогических наук, ИИЕТ РАН

Кессених Александр Владимирович - доктор физико-математических наук, ИИЕТ РАН

Кожина Лидия Михайловна - кандидат технических наук, заместитель генерального директора Политехнического музея

Минина Екатерина Валерьевна - заведующая научно-экспозиционным отделом материалов и технологии Политехнического музея

Мокрова Мария Владимировна - кандидат исторических наук, ИИЕТ РАН

Новосад Елена Вячеславовна - независимый исследователь

Пирузян Лев Арамович - академик РАН

Россиянов Кирилл Олегович - кандидат биологических наук, ИИЕТ РАН

Севастьянова Ольга Валентиновна - научный сотрудник, ИИЕТ РАН

Симонов Рэм Александрович - доктор исторических наук, Московский государственный университет печати

Ульянкина Татьяна Ивановна - доктор биологических наук, ИИЕТ РАН

Чайковский Юрий Викторович - кандидат технических наук, ИИЕТ РАН

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