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The Шапка Мономаха tale of the grand princes of vladimir - страница №1/1



The Шапка Мономаха

TALE OF THE GRAND PRINCES OF VLADIMIR


The tale of the Grand Princes of Vladimir is a XVIth century narrative. The oldest manuscript comes from the Volokolamsk monastery and is now in the State Library of Russia.1

The Tale is based on two legends. The first traces the origins of the family of the Russian Tsars to the Roman Emperor Augustus. According to the Tale Augustus had a descendant in Prussia (Germany) cаlled Riurik, and he became the founder of the Riurikovichi clan. Since the Tsars od the Empire of Muscovy and all Russia were descended from the Riurikovichi the legend shows that the Russian Tsars were the equals of the Holy Roman Emperors (the title used by the rulers of Germany, referred to in the Tale as Prussia).

The second legend tells of the transference of Imperial regalia (crown, orb, sceptre) from the Byzantine Emperor Constantine Monomachus to Vladimir Monomakh, Grand Prince of Kiev. In the photo above is one of the crowns used in coronation of Russian  Tsars after the sixteenth century - this was the supposed gift from Constantine Monomachus (known also as the Шапка Мономаха).

The exact date of the legend is not clear. It was written sometime before 1523, the date when it is first mentioned in a letter from the monk Spiridon-Sava. The legend was quoted in the Voskresenskii chronicle (early XVIth), the introduction to the Государев родословец (Genealogy of the Tsars) written in 1555, and in the Степенная книга (Book of Generations). The story about the transference of the Imperial Regalia from Byzantium was used as the introduction to the 1547 Coronation Order of Ivan the Terrible.

In this version the Tale adds legends connected with the genealogy of the Grand Princes of Lithuania, based on a Muscovite source which suggested that the founder of the Lithuanian princely family came from the family of a slave. Thus Moscow tried to suggest its superiority to the Lithuanian Grand Princes, with whom it was in competition for Kievan lands in the West. In one of his letters, Ivan the Terrible himself rejected this particular version of the origins of the Lithuanian rulers (‘those who know no better lie that Vitenets the servant was descended from Lithuanian Grand Princes and that he had a groom called Gedimin’2).  

СКАЗАНИЕ О ВЕЛИКИХ КНЯ3EX ВЛАДИМЕРСКИХ ВЕЛИКИА РУСИЯ

От история Ханаонава и предела рекома Арфаксадова, перваго сына Ноева рожьшагося, и о потопе. По отца своего Ноя благословению разделися вся вселенная на три чясти трем сыном его: Симу, Хаму и Афету. Извержеся от нерадениа Хам от благословениа отца своего Ноя, зане не покры наготы отца своего Ноа, упившася вином. Егда истрезвися Ной от вина и вразуме, елико сътвори ему сын его меньший, н рече: ‘Проклят буди Хамъ, да будет раб братома своима. И благослови дву сынов своих Сима и Афета, иже покрыша наготу отца своего опаки зрящи, наготы же не видеша. И благослови Симова сына Арфаксада, яко да вселится в пределех Ханаоновых. И родишася ему две близняте: первому имя Мерсемъ, второму Хусъ, - сии начялницы Египту. И умножившимся от них родом по коленомъ. Отлучися Хус во глубочайшая страны Иньдея и разпространися тамо на востоце; Мерсу же умножишася племена даже до сей страны. Афету же излишая племена от северных стран даже и до полунощна. 

И воста некий началник того же рода именем Фарис в Калаврийских странах и созда град во имя свое именем Арфакса. Правнук же его именем Гайдуварий, сей первый написа астрологию в Асирии в пределех Симовех, и по сем Сеостръ. Сей же Сеостр первее всех на земли въцарися в египте и по колеену его многая лета преминушя. И от его роду пача царствовати Филиксъ, и тъй пооблада вселеныюю. По Филикс же, мпогим летом минувшимъ, воста некий царь в Египте от того же рода именем Нактанав влъхвъ, сей роди Александра Макидоньскаго от Алимъпияды, жены Филиповы. Сей вторый пооблада вселенною лет 12, и всьх лет живота его 32, скончася и предаде Егппет ряднику своему Птоломею.

Мати же Александрова по смерти сына своего возвратися к отцу своему Фолу, царю ефиопьскому. Фол же вдаст ю ко второму браку за Виза, сродника Нектонавова, Виз же роди от нея дщерь и нарече ю Аньтия, и созда град в Сосвенех, и нарече имя граду в свое имя и в дщери своея Визаньтия, иже ныне именуем Царьград. От Александра Макидоньскаго до Птоломеа Прокаженаго премину Птоломеев 22.

Птоломей же Прокаженый име дщерь премудру именем Клеопатру, и та правяше Египетьское царство под отцем своим Птоломемъ. И в то время Иулие, кесарь римъский, посла зятя своего Антонина, стратига римьскаго, на Египет воиньством. Антонину же пришедшу со многими вон по суху и по морю на брань Египту. Посла же Клеопатра ко Антонину, стратигу римскому, послы своя со многими дарми, глаголющи: ‘Веси ли, о стратиже, египетьское богатьство? Лутше ми есть с покоем царствовати нежели с малоумьем излияти крови человеческиа’. Умили же ся Антонин и прият Египет без крови, и посяже за нь царица Клеопатра премудраа; и въцарися Антоннн в египте. И услышав Иулие, кесарь римъский, Антониново презорство, и постави брата своего Августа стратигом над ипаты, и посла его с четыре браты своими и со всею областью римскою на Антонина. И пришед Августъ, взят Египетъ, и уби зятя своего Антонина, сам седе вь Египте. Взят же и Клеопатру царицу, дщерь Птоломеа Прокаженаго, и посла ю в Рим в кораблех со многим богатством египетским и Клеопатру. Она же глаголющи: ‘Лутши ми есть царици египетьской смерть прняти, нежели пленьницею приведеной быти в Римъ’; и умори себе ядом аспидовым.

Восташа же на Улия ипаты: Врутосъ, и Помпeлий, и Крас, и убиста его в Риме. И скоро прииде весть к Августу вь Египет о Улиеве смерти; и опечалися зело о братие смерти. И скоро созва вся воеводы, и чнноначялникн, и нумеры, и преноситы, и возвещает им смерть Иулия, кесаря римъскаго. Они же единогласно ръша, римляне и египтяне: ‘О преславный стратиже, Улия кесаря брата твоего от смерти въставити не можем, а твое величество веньчяем венцем римъскаго царства’. И облекоста его во одежду Сеострову, начялнаго царя Египту, в порфиру и висон, и припоясаста его поясом дерьмлидом, и возложиста на главу его митру Поря, царя иньдейскаго, юже принесл Александр Макидоньский от Иньдиа, и приодеша его по плещема окроиницею царя Филикса, владущаго вселенною, и рядостне въскликнушя велиим гласомъ: ‘Радуйся, Августъ, царю римъский и всеа вселенныа!’

В лето 5457 Августу, кесарю римъскому, грядущу в Египет с своими ипаты, яже бе власть египетьская рода суща Птоломъева. И сръте его Ирод Антипатров, творя ему велие послужение вои, и пищею, и дарми. Предаде же бог Египет и Клеопатру в руце Августу. Август же начят дань подкладати на вселенной. Постави брата своего Патрикиа царя Египту; Августалиа, другаго брата своего, постави Александрии властодержца; Ирода же Антипатрова асколонитянина за многия ради его почести постави царя над июдеи в Иерусалиме; Асию же поручи Евлагерду, сроднику своему; Алирика же, брата своего, постави в поверъшии Истра; и Пиона постави во Отоцех Златых, иже ныне наричются Угрове; а Пруса, сродника своего, в брезе Вислы реце во граде Марборок. и Турнъ, и Хвоини, и пресловый Гданескъ, и ины многи грады по реку, глаголемую Немонъ, впадшую в море. И жит Прус многа времена льт и до четвертаго роду; и оттоль и до сего времяни зоветься Прусьская земля.

И в то время некий воевода новгородьцкий именем Гостомысл скончевает свое житье и созва вся владелца Новагорода и рече имъ: ‘О мужие новгородьстии, совет даю вам азъ, яко да пошлете в Прусьскую землю мужа мудры и призовите от тамо сущих родов к себе владелца’. Они же шедше в Прусьскую землю и обретоша тамо некоего князя именем Рюрика, суща от рода римъскаго Августа царя. И молиша князя Рюрика посланьницы от всех новгородцовъ, дабы шел к ним княжнти. Князь же Рюрик прииде в Новъгород, имeя с собою два брата: единому имя Труворъ, а второму Синеусъ, а третий племенник его именем Олегъ. И оттоле наречен бысть Великий Новградъ; и начя княз великий Рюрик первый княжити в немъ.



 

А великого князя Рюрика четвертое колено великий княз Володимер, иже просветил Русьскую землю святым крещеньем в лето 6496. А от великого князя Владимира четвертое колено княз великий Владимир Всеволодич Манамах, правнукъ. Егда седе в Киеве на великом княжении, совет начят творити с князми своими и с боляры и велможи, тако рекъ: ‘Егда аз мал семь преже мене царствовавших и хоругви правящих скипетра великиа Русиа, яко же князь великий Олег ходил и взял с Цариграда великую дань па вся воа своа и здрав въсвояси возвратися; и потом Всеслав Игоревич, княз великий, ходил и взял па Коньстянтине граде тяжьчайшую дань. А мы есмя божиею милостью настолницы своих прародителей и отца моего великого князя Всеволода Ярославичя и наследницы тоя же чести от бога. Ныне съвета ищу от васъ, моея полаты князей, и боляр, и воеводь, и всего христолюбиваго воиньства; да превознесется имя святыа живоначалныа Троици вашея храбрости могутьством божьею волею с нашим повелениемъ; и кий ми советь против воздаете?’ Отвьщаста же великому князю Владимиру Всеволодичю его князи, и боляри, и воеводы: ‘Сердце царево в руце божьи, и мы вен есмо в твоей воле’. 


Княз же великий Владимир събирает воеводы благоискусны и благоразумны и поставляет чиноначалникн над различными воиньствы - тысущники, сотники, пятдесятники над различными чинми боренья; и съвокупи многия тысяща воиньства, и отпусти их на Фракию, Цариграда области; и плениша я доволно и возвратишася с многим богатеством. Тогда бе в Цариграде благочестивый царь Констянтинь Манамах, и в то время брань имея с персы и с латыною. И съставляет совет мудре и царьски, отряжает послы к великому князю Владимиру Всеволодичю: Неофита митрополита ефесьскаго и с ним два епископа, милитиньска и митилиньска, и стратига Антипа антиохийскаго, игемона иерусалимъскаго Еустафия, и иных своих благородных. От своея же выя снемлет животворящий крест от самого животворящаго древа, на нем же распятся владыка Христос. Снемлет же от своея главы венець царьский и поставляет его на блюде злате. Повелевает же принести крабьицу сердоликову, из нея же Августия, царь римъский, веселяшеся, и ожерелье, иже па плещу своею ношаше, и чепь от злата аравьска исковану, и ины многи дары царьскиа. И предаде их митрополиту Неофиту сь епископы и своим благородным посланникомъ, и посла их к великому князю Владимиру Вселодпчю, моля его и глаголя: ‘Прийми от насъ, о боголюбивый благоверный княже, сиа честныа дарове, иже от начатка вечных лет твоего родьства и поколенья царьский жребиий, на славу и честь и на венчание твоего волнаго и самодержавнаго царствиа. И о нем же начнут тя молити наши посланницы, что мы от твоего благородна просим мира и любве, яко церкви божьа безмятежна будет, и все православие в покои пребудет под сущею властью нашего царства ц твоего волнаго самодержавъства великиа Русиа, яко да нарицаешися отселе боговенчаньный царь, венчан сим царьским венцем рукою святейшаго митрополита кир Неофита с епископы.’ И от того времени княз великий Владимир Всеволодичь наречеся Манамах, царь великиа Русия. И пребысть потом прочаа времена с царем с Констянтином в смирении и любве.

И оттоле и доныне тем венцем венчаются царским велиции князи володимерьстии, его же прислал греческий царь Коньстянтин Манамах, егда ставятся на великое княжение русьское. В царство же Констянтина Манамаха отлучися от Цариграда церкви, и от правыа въры отпаде римъский папа Формос и уклонися в латыньство. Царь же Коньстянтин и святейший патриарх кир Иларие повеле събратися собору в царствующий град - святейшии патриарси александръский, и антиохийский, иерусалимъский. И с их советом благочестивый царь Коньстянтин Манамах с святым вселеньским собором четырми патриархы, митрополиты и епископы, иереи извергоша папино имя ис поминаней церковных и отлучишя его от четырех патриархъ. И от православныа веры отпадша, и от того времене и доныне пытають, нарекошася латына. Мы же, православии христиане, исповедаем святую Троицу безначялнаго Отца с единородным Сыном и с пресвятым единосущным и животворящим Духом ве едином божестве веруем и славим и покланяемся.

Родство великих князей литовъских. 

В лето 6830 по пленении безбожнаго Батыа избежал от плена его некий князец именем Витянецъ, рода смоленьских князей, и вселися в Жомоть у некоего бортника. И поят у него дщерь в жену себе и пребысть с нею лът 30 бездътен. И убьеп бысть громомъ. И послъди князя Витенца поят жену его раб его конюшец именем Гигименикъ. И роди от нея седмь сыновъ: 1. Нароминтикъ, 2. Евнутикъ, 3. Олгердикъ, 4. Кестутик, 5. Скиригайликъ, 6. Кориядикъ, 7. Мантоникъ.

 

Лета 6825 князь Юрьи Данилович московский и князь Михаил Ярославич тверьский поидоша во Орду о великом княженьи володимерском в споръ. И князь Михаил Ярославич Тверьский убьен бысть в Ордъ. Князь Юрьи Данилович прииде из Орды на великое княжение. И виде многи грады запустевшая и людей мало събирающася, печалию одержим бе. По убьении бо князя Михаила Черниговъскаго разсыпашася измаилтяне по всей земли Русьской, яко птици полеташа. И христианьский род овех мечем закалающе, других же в плен отвожаху, а оставшая смерть и глад погубляше. Сия случишася нам грех ради наших.



 

Великий же князь начат разсылати по градом н местом собрати оставшаа люди. Посла убо сего Гегименика на Волоскую землю и на Киевъскую и обь ею страну Меньска наполняти плененыа грады и веси, у поставших имати дани царьскиа. И с ним посла некоего мужа славна именем Бореика и иных множайшихъ. Сей же реченный Гегименик бе мужь храбр зело и велика разума, начять брати дани на людех и съкровища изыскивати и обогатися зело. И собра к себе множество людей, дая им потребная нескудно, и начят владети многими землями. Назвася от них князь великий Гедиман литовъский. Первый великих государей русьских князей несъгласьем и междуусобнымин браньми.

 

В лето 6859 князь великий Семион Семионович седе на великом княжении володимерьском и московском. В то же лето преставися Гедиман, князь великий литовъский Первый. И по нем седе на великом княжении литовъском сын его первый Наримантъ. И бысть ему брань с иноплеменники, н впаде в руце их. В то время бывшу великому князю Ивану Даниловичю в Орде, и окупил князь великий Нариманта у татар и отпустил его к Литве. Он же по своему обету, не дошед своея отчины, крестися, н наречене бысть в святом крещении Глебъ. И того ради братья его не даша ему великого княжениа.



 

Но седе на великом княженьи брат его Олгердъ, а Наримантъ, брат его, отиде в Великий Новъградъ, Евнут же вселися, идеже ныне Вильна, а Скиригайло з братом своим с Кестутьем вселишася при некоем озере за 20 поприщь от Вилны. И въста Скиригайло на брата своего Кестутия и уби его. Сын же Кестутев Витовт бежа в немцы и тамо собра себе друзи многи, и пришед оттуду, уби дядю своего Скиригайла и два сына его. И вселися на месте отца своего и дяде своего, и нарече имя месту тому Троки, и совокупися любовою з дядею своим с Олгердомъ. Той бо Олгерд вина не пиаше и велик разум имяше, земля и княженьа притяжа к себе многи и удержа велию власть.

В лето 6858 князь великий Олгерд литовский присла послы своя к великому князю Семиону Ивановичю на Москву со многими дарми, прося мира и живота братьи своей. Князь же великий Семион пожаловал Олгерда и братью его, Корияда н иных отпустил к нему. И паки прислал Олгерд к великому князю Семиону Ивановичю, прося за себя свестн его дочери великого князя Александра Михайловича тверскаго. И князь великий Семион по благословению отца своего Феогнаста, митрополита всеа Русии, вдаст за него свъсть свою великую княжну Иулиянию. И родишася от нея сынов седмь: первый Андрей Полътеский, 2. Володимер Бельский 3. Иван Острожский, 4. Иаков 5. Легбень Волыньский, 6. Василей Черторижьский, 7. Олелко Киевъский.

Посем время не мало преиде, князь великий Олгерд в недуг впаде и начят сыновом ряд чинити: Иакова сына своего возлюби паче всех и даде ему великое княжение и град Вильну, а прочих сынов своих по уделом устроилъ.

Благоверная же великая княгиня Иулианиа, виде своего мужа Олгерда последнее дышуща, и печаловашеся о спасении его, и созва сыны своа и отца своего духовнаго призва Давида, архимандрита печерьскаго. И увеща своего мужа Олгерда съвътом благым и божьим поспешениемъ, сподоби его святаго крещения. И наречень бысть в святом крещеньи Александръ. И последи того великим чином иноческим одеяся и святою схимою великим аггельским образом украсився, и вместо Александра Алексий наречен бысть; н по малех днех преставися, н положиша тело его в церкви святыа Богородици в Вильне, юже сам созда. По сем же супружница его, благоверная княгини Иульяния, немного время пожив, преставися, и в той же церкви погребоша тело ея.

Иаков же, сын Олгердовъ, впаде в латыньскую прелесть - Ягайло великий князь литовъский, и бысть советник и друг безбожному Мамаю, его же побил за Доном благоверный великий князь Димитрие Ивановичь. Витовт же Кестутьевичь совокупися любовью с Ягайлом. И по семь Ягайло взят бысть в Краков и коруноваша его кралемь польским в Кракове, а на Вильне устави брата своего Витовта.

Витовт же устроися на Вильне князь великий литовъский н нача съзидати грады многи, заруби Киев и Черниговъ, и взят Брянеск и Смоленескъ, и приступиша к нему вси князи пограничныа, с вотчинами от Киева даже и до Фоминьского приложишася к Витовту. 

Сия убо о сих известна суть.



THE TALE OF THE GRAND PRINCES OF VLADIMIR OF GREAT RUSSIA

From the history of Canaan3 and the lands said to be Arphaxad’s, belonging to the first son of Noah, to be born after the Flood.4 Shem, Ham and Japhet divided the universe into three parts in accordance with their father’s blessing.5 Ham was banished from his father’s blessing for he did not cover the nakedness of his father Noah, who was drunk on wine. When Noah became sober from the wine and realised what was done to him by his youngest son he said: ‘May Ham be accursed, may he be the slave of his brothers.’6 Then he blessed his two sons, Shem and Japhet who covered the nakedness of their father, and saw no nakedness. And he blessed Shem’s son Arphaxad to settle in the lands of Canaan. And he had two twins, the first was called Mersem and the second was Hus.7 These were the founders of Egypt. And their tribes multiplied into many generations. And Hus went off into the deepest India and spread there in the east. Mersem multiplied his tribes as far as our lands. Japhet founded tribes which went from northern countries to the south.

And a certain leader of the same tribe by the name of Pharsis8 rebelled in the Calabrian countries and created a city which he named after himself Arphaxa.9 And his grandson by the name of Gaiduvar,10 he who first wrote an astrology in Asyria in the lands of Shem, and then Seostr11 came after him. This Seostr was the first in the world to rule over Egypt and many years passed under his generations and Felix12 from his tribe became the Emperor and became ruler of the universe. After Felix, when many years had passed a certain Tsar13 rose in Egypt from the same family. His name was Naktanav14 the magician. He gave birth to Alexander of Macedon by Olympias, the wife of Philip.15 Alexander ruled the universe for 12 years and altogether the years of his life were 32,16 he died and passed on Egypt to his general Ptolemy.

Аfter the death of her son Alexander’s mother returned to her father Fol, the Tsar of Ethiopia. Fol married her in second marriage to Viz, who was Nektanave’s relative. And Viz had a daughter by her and her name was Anthea and he created a city in Sosvene and he called the city by the name of himself and of his daughter, Byzantium,17 and now it is called Tsargrad.18 And there were 22 Ptolemys from Alexander of Macedon to Ptolemy the Afflicted.19

And Ptolemy the Afflicted had a wise daughter called Cleopatra and she ruled over the Egyptian Empire together with her father Ptolemy. At that time Julius the Caesar of Rome sent his son-in-law Anthony,20 a Roman General, to fight against Egypt. And when Anthony came with a huge army along the land and the sea to seize Egypt, Cleopatra sent her ambassadors with rich gifts to Anthony the Roman General. They said ‘do you know oh, General, about the wealth of Egypt? It is better to rule in peace than to spill human blood in madness.’ And Anthony took pity and received Egypt without bloodshed and Cleopatra the wise Empress married him. Anthony became ruler of Egypt, and Julius Caesar of Rome, having heard of Anthony’s disobedience appointed his brother Augustus21 as strategos22 over the military leaders and sent him with four of his other brothers and the whole force of Rome against Anthony. And when they came, Augustus subjugated Egypt and killed his son-in-law Anthony and took the throne of Egypt. He also seized Cleopatra the daughter of Ptolemy the Afflicted and sent her to Rome in ships together with the great wealth of Egypt, which he seized. But she said ‘it is better to die as an Egyptian Empress than to be brought as a captive to Rome’ and she killed herself with snake venom.

And powerful men rose against Julius - Brutus and Pompilius and Crassus, and they killed him in Rome. And Augustus soon heard in Egypt about Julius’ death and he was very sad to hear about the death of his brother. And he quickly called all of his generals and governors and numbers-men and told them of the death of Julius Caesar of Rome. And they said with one voice, the Romans and the Egyptians: ‘Oh, great strategos we cannot restore your brother Julius Caesar to life but we crown your majesty with the crown of the Roman Empire.’ And they dressed him in the clothes of Seostr, first Tsar of Egypt, in porphyry23 and scarlet24 and they put on him a belt made of precious stones25 and put on his head the mitre of Por,26 Tsar of India, brought by Alexander of Macedon from India and on his shoulders they put the cloak of Tsar Felix, who had ruled over the universe and they joyfully exclaimed in a great voice, ‘Rejoice, Augustus, Tsar of Rome and the entire Universe!’27

 In the year 5457,28 Augustus, the Caesar of Rome came to Egypt with his nobles who were of the Egyptian family of Ptolemy. And he was met by Herod,29 son of Antipater, who served him greatly with armies, food and gifts. For God had given Egypt and Cleopatra into the hands of Augustus. Augustus began to impose a tax over the universe. He appointed his brother Patricius30 as Tsar of Egypt; Augustalius,31 another brother, he made ruler of Alexandria. And Herod Antipater of Aschelon he made Tsar over the Jews in Jerusalem, because of his many great deeds. He gave Asia to Evlagerd, his relative; Aliric32 his brother he appointed to the upper reaches of the Istra; and Pion33 was left in Golden Stream, nowadays called Hungary; and Prus34 his relative [was appointed to rule] on the shores of the Vistula river in the city of Marbruck: and Thurn and Khvoiny and famous Gdansk and many other cities along the river called Neman which falls into the sea. And Prus lived many years until the fourth generation and that is why the Prussian land is named thus even to this day.35

And at that time a certain military Novgorod leader by the name of Gostomysl36 was close to death and he called all the Novgorod propertied men and told them: ‘Oh men of Novgorod, I advise you to send wise men to the Prussian land and invite a ruler from among the peoples living there.’ So they went to the Prussian land and obtained a certain prince by the name of Riurik who was of the family of the Emperor Augustus and the envoys from all the Novgorodians petitioned him to come and be their prince and Riurik the prince came to Novgorod with two brothers: one was called Truvor, and the second one Sineus and the third one was his cousin by the name of Oleg.37 That is when Novgorod became Great Novgrad and Grand Prince Riurik became the first Prince of it.

 And the fourth generation descended from Grand Prince Riurik was the Grand Prince Vladimir38 who enlightened the Russian land with holy baptism in the year 988. And the fourth generation from the Grand Prince Vladimir, the Grand Prince Vladimir Monomakh was the grandson.39 When he became Grand Prince Prince of Kiev he started to counsel with his princes and boyars and nobles, saying thus: ‘When I was small, there were those who ruled and held the banners of the Sceptre of Great Russia: Grand Prince Oleg40 who went and took from Tsargrad a great tribute for all his armies, and returned back safely; and then Vseslav Igorevich41 the Grand Prince who took from Constantinople a heavy tribute. And we are by God’s will the enthroned heirs of our ancestors, and my father, Grand Prince Vsevolod Iaroslavich and we have inherited that honour from God.42 Now I seek your advice, princes and boyars and generals of my palace and from all the Christ-loving army. Let the name of the Holy life-giving Trinity rise above all with the power of your courage, God’s will and our orders, do you have any counsel against this?’ And all his Princes and boyars and generals answered Grand Prince Vladimir Vsevolodovich: ‘The heart of the Tsar is in the hands of God and we are a broom in your will.’43

And Grand Prince Vladimir collected well-skilled and wise generals and appointed them leaders of various armies as thousand-men, hundred-men, fifty-men over various military formations;44 and he gathered many thousands of armies and sent them against Thrace in the region of Constantinople;45 and they fought there sufficiently and returned with many riches. That was when in Constantinople there was the God-honouring Tsar Constantine Monomachus.46 But at that time he had a quarrel with the Persians47 and the Latins.48 And he gathered a wise Imperial Council and sent ambassadors to the Grand Prince Vladimir Vsevolodovich: Neophytes, Metropolitan of Ephesus and with him two bishops, one of Meletia and one of Mytilene, and his strategos and Antipos of Antioch, and the hegemon of Jerusalem Eustathius and many other of his noble-born. And he took off his neck the life-giving cross made of that same life-giving wood on which our Lord Christ was crucified. And he took off his head the Imperial Crown and put it on a gold plate. And he ordered that a box made of carnelian49 should be brought, the one which gave joy to Augustus Tsar of Rome, and he took off the necklace which he carried on his shoulders, and the chain wrought of of Arab gold and many other Imperial gifts. And he gave them to Metropolitan Neophytes with the ships and his noble-born ambassador and sent them to the Grand Prince Vladimir Vsevolodovich petitioning him thus: ‘Receive from us, oh God-beloved and truly faithful Prince, these honourable gifts which are from the beginning of the eternal lives of your family and generations the lot of Tsars, for the glory and honour and coronation of your free and autocratic Tsardom.50 And with it our ambassadors will petition you, asking that we want peace and love from your Majesty so that all orthodoxy should be at peace under the existing power of our Imperium and your free Autocracy of great Russia so that from now on you should be called God-Crowned Tsar having been crowed by this Tsar’s crown by the hand of the most holy Metropolitan Lord Neophytus with his bishops.’ And from that time on Grand Prince Vladimir Vsevolodovich was called Monomakh, the Tsar of Great Russia. And all remaining times he then was in humility and love with Tsar Constantine.

And from that time on to this time that Imperial crown is used in the coronation of Grand Princes of Vladimir, when they are appointed to the Grand Principality of Russia, that is the Crown sent by the Greek Tsar Constantine Monomachus. And in the Empire of Constantine Monomachus churches excommunicated themselves from Constantinopolis and the Roman Pope Formosus51 fell away from the true faith and deviated into Latin faith. But Constantine the Tsar and the most holy patriarch lord Hillarion52 ordered a council to meet in the Imperial city – with the most holy patriarchs of Alexandria and Antioch and Jerusalem. And with their counsel the God-honouring Tsar Constantine Monomachus with the holy universal counsel of the four patriarchs Metropolitan bishops and priests threw out the name of the Pope from church books and excommunicated him from among the four patriarchs. And thus they fell away from orthodoxy and they fly from that time till now and they are called Latins. But we orthodox Christians venerate the Holy Trinity of the unbegotten father with his equally born son and with the all-holy homousios [single-substance] and life-giving spirit in one God we believe, this we glorify and to this we bow.53

 The family tree of the Grand Princes of Lithuania.

In the year 6830 after the invasion of the Godless Batyi,54 a certain prince, by the name of Vitianets55 fled from captivity. He was of the family of Smolensk princes and he settled in Zhomot56 with a certain forest beekeeper. And he took the beekeepers daughter as his wife and spent 30 years with her childless. And he was killed by lightening. And then the wife of Prince Vitenis was taken as wife by his stable slave, called Gigimenik.57 And from her he had seven sons: 1. Naromintik, 2. Evnutik, 3. Olgerdik, 4. Kestutik, 5. Skirigailik, 6. Koriadik, 7. Mantonik.58

In the year 682559, Prince Iurii Danilovich60 of Moscow, and Prince Mikhail Iaroslavovich of Tver went to the Horde, disputing the Grand Principality of Vladimir.61 And Prince Mikhail Iaroslavovich of Tver62 was killed in the Horde. And Prince Iurii Danilovich came from the Horde to the Grand Principality. He saw many empty cities and few people gathering together and he was very sad. For after the death of Prince Mikhail of Chernigov63 the Ishmaelites64 spread throughout the land of Rus like birds flying. And they put some of the Christian faith to death by sword, others they took into captivity and the rest were killed by death and hunger. That’s what happened to us because of our sins.

And the Grand Prince began to send out to cities and towns to collect people who were left. And he sent this to the land of Walachia and Kiev and to both its sides of Minsk to fill the captive cities and villages and to gather the Tsar’s tribute65 from those which still stood. And with him he sent a certain famous man by the name of Boreik and many others. And this above-mentioned Gegimenik was a very courageous man and of great wisdom and he started to collect tribute from people and find their treasures and became very rich. And he collected many people and he gave them that which they needed generously and he became ruler of many lands. And because of these he called himself the Grand Prince of Lithuania Gedimin I, without the agreement of the great rulers the Russian princes and through internecine warfare.66 

In the year 685967 Grand Prince Simeon Simeonovich took the Grand Principality of Vladimir and Moscow.68 That was the year of the death of Gediman69 the first Lithuanian Grand Prince, and after him the Lithuanian Grand Principality was taken by his first son Narimant. And he had a battle with the alien peoples70 and he fell into their hands and at that time Ivan Danilovich the Grand Prince71 was in the Horde and the Grand Prince ransomed Narimant from the Tartars and let him go to Lithuania. And he [Narimant] as he promised, was baptised before he reached his patrimony and took the name of Gleb in holy baptism. And that is why his brothers did not give him the Grand Principality.72

Instead his brother Olgerd73 took the Grand Principality and his brother Narimant went to Great Novgorod,74 Evnut settled where Vilna75 is now, and Skirigailo with his brother Kestut settled near a certain lake 20 poprishcha76 from Vilna. And Skirigailo77 rose against his brother Kestut and killed him. And Kestut’s son Vitovt78 ran to the Germans and there collected many troops and having come back he killed his uncle Skirigailo and his two sons. And he settled in the place of his father and his uncle and he called that place Troki and he lived in love with his uncle Olgerd.79 For that Olgerd did not drink wine80 and was very wise and he acquired many lands and principalities and held great power.

  In the year 6858 Grand Prince Olgerd of Lithuania sent his ambassadors to the Grand Prince Simeon Ivanovich to Moscow with many gifts asking for peace and the lives of his brothers.81 And Grand Prince Simeon was good to Olgerd and his brethren, and Koriada and others were let go back.82 And then Olgerd sent to Grand Prince Simeon Ivanovich asking for the daughter of the Grand Prince of Alexander Mikhailovich of Tver as his wife. And Grand Prince Simeon with the blessing of his father Theognostes, metropolitan of all Russia allowed him to marry Grand Princess Iuliania.83 And she had seven sons and the first was Andrei of Poltava, 2. Vladimir Belskii, 3. Ivan Ostrozhskii, 4. Jacob, 5. Legben of Volynia, 6. Vasilii Czartoryzski, 7. Olelko of Kiev.

  After that some time passed and Grand Prince Olgerd fell ill and he started to give instructions to his sons. He loved Jacob his son best of all and he gave him the Grand Principality in the city of Vilna, and to his other sons he gave appanages.84

And the God-loving Grand Princess Iuliania seeing the last breath of her husband Olgerd and having fear for his salvation called her sons and her spiritual father David, Archimandrite of the monastery of the Caves85 and she gave a blessed counsel to her husband Olgerd and gave him divine armour making him fit for holy baptism. And he was given the name of Alexander in holy baptism. And after that he dressed in the great estate of monks and in the holy habit he became beatified by the great angelic image86 and was named Alexius instead of Alexander. And after some days he died and his body was buried in the Church of the Holy Mother of God in Vilna which he himself had created.

And after that his wife, God-loving Princess Iuliania, having lived a short while, died and her body was buried in the same church. Jacob, the son of Olgerd fell into Latin seduction.87 Iagailo, the Grand Prince of Lithuania88 became counsellor and friend of the Godless Mamai89 who was defeated on the Don by the God-loving Grand Prince Dimitri Ivanovich. Vitovt Kestutevic gathered in love90 with Iagailo. And after that Iagailo was taken to Krakow and crowned King of Poland and Krakow and he appointed his brother Vitovt to rule in Vilna.

And Vitovt became in Vilna the Grand Prince of Lithuania and started creating many cities, fortifying Kiev and Chernigov and having taken Briansk and Smolensk he was joined by all the princes of the borderlands with their patrimonies from Kiev as far as Fominsk,91 they all joined Vitovt.

And that is that which is known about them so far.

 

 






1 Volokolamskoe sobr. No 572:190-197v. The Russian text is from Biblioteka literatury drevnei Rusi, vol. 6. English translation © J. R. Howlett. Commentary by R. P. Dmitrieva from Biblioteka literatury drevnei Rusi, vol. 6, and J. R. Howlett

2 Poslaniia Ivana Groznogo, M-L, 1951:260

3 Could be Canaan the land, or Canaan, son of Ham.

4 The original says ‘about the flood’, but the meaning is clearly as in the translation. The righteous Noah was the only man left by God upon earth after the flood. According to Genesis he had three sons, and from them ‘the nations spread out over the earth after the flood’ (Gen. 10:32). But Arphaxad was Noah’s grandson, the third son of Shem.

5 The Bible says that Noah divided the world into two parts, East and West, because Ham had misbehaved and received nothing.

6 The dangers of inebriation are one theme of this work.

7 The Skazanie is confused here. Cush and Mizraim were Ham’s sons.

8 Unclear – may be a corruption of the text. The more likely name here is Arphaxad.

9 One of many illogicalities in the work

10 known only in Russian chronicles as an Indian astronomer.

11 Not an Egyptian king. Possibly a corruption of Zarathustra. His name occurs in a number of contemporary Russian chronographs.

12 Another invented name.

13 Note the use of the Царь for 'ruler of universe'

14 Several pharaohs were called Nektanebo.

15 Alexander the Great (356 BC – 324 BC) was the son of Philip of Macedon, not of Nektanebo.

16 That is correct.

17 Viz+Anthea=Vizantea

18 Tsargrad, meaning ‘imperial city’, was the Russian name for Constantinople. Byzantium was re-named Constantinople by Emperor Constantine, who adopted Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire. In 1930 Constantinople became Istanbul.

19 Прокаженный means ill from some dread disease, the plague.

20 Anthony was not Caesar's son-in-law.

21 Caesar Octavian, who took the title Augustus, was Julius Caesar’s successor. Julius Caesar was his great-uncle, not his brother.

22 Military leader

23 Purple. The colour purple was considered an imperial colour.

24 Cf. Bulgarian version of Exodus 39:3. Or висон may mean a fine cloth.

25 This is a guess. Meaning of дермлид unclear

26 Por is mentioned by classical historians as an Indian King defeated and imprisoned by Alexander. The information here may come from the Александрия, a Serbian version of the tales of the exploits of Alexander of Macedon, translated into Russian in the XVth century.

27 This paragraph illustrates the notion of translatio imperii, or transference of imperial rule, through objects.

28 This would be 23 or 31 BC. Octavian was granted his title Agustus in 27 BC.

29 Herod I was King of Judea 73 BC – 4 BC. Best known from the Bible for the Massacre of the Innocents.

30 The chronicle of George the Monk mentions one Patrikios, a Ist century bishop.

31 The chronicle of George the Monk mentions one Augastalius, a Vth century Patriarch of Alexandria.

32 Though Alric is not an uncommon name, here it is probably made up from Illyria, a territory through which the Danube flows (Istra is a common Russian term for the Danube).Throughout the Skazanie the author invents leaders’ names from the names of ethnic groups known to him.

33 Another piece of historical imagining. The пионе – a Magyar tribe - are mentioned in a 16th century historical compilation. Hence their leader Pion.

34 Prus is a legendary leader of the Prussians. Prussia The name Prus is known only from the Skazanie. The Prussians were not a people in Roman times.

35 This family tree is entirely mythical, though Caesar Augustus did have a stepson who became governor of German provinces of the Roman Empire (Germanicus Julius Caesar)

36 Legendary Novgorod leader.

37 This is the story of the calling in of the Varangians, familiar to the readers of Повесть временных лет (under the year 862).

38 According to the Повесть временных лет Riurik († 879)→Igor (†945)→Sviatoslav (†972)→Vladimir. In actual fact the link between Riurik and Igor is doubtful.

39 Vladimir († 1015) →Iaroslav († 1054)→Vsevolod († 1093)→Vladimir Monomakh (†1125)

40 According to the Povest vremennykh let Oleg (†912) was regent during Igor’s minority.

41 Possibly a copyist’s error – no Vseslav is known to have exacted tribute. Throught to be Sviatoslav Igorevich, GP of Kiev 945-972. He was at war with Byzantium in 971.

42 A XVIth century enunciation of the divine origin of kingly power.

43 A reminiscence of the counsel which the first Vladimir of Kiev sought from his boiars before converting to Christianity. But here the boiars recognise their lowly status before their ruler.

44 Such divisions are part of the post-Mongol organisation of the military.

45 Vladimir Iaroslavovich of Kiev was at war with Byzantium in 1043. Three years after Byzantium and Rus concluded a peace, and a diplomatic marriage, with Vladimir’s son Vsevolod marrying the daughter of Constantine Monomachus, Emperor of Byzantium. Their son Vladimir (GP of Kiev 1113 – 1155) was called Мономах to mark his descent from a Byzantine dynasty.

46 Constantine Monomachus died in 1055, when Vladimir Monomakh was just two years old. The Tale is not a reliable historical source.

47 During Constantine's reign the Byzantine Empire first had to defend itself against the Seljuk Turks.

48 In 1054 Pope Leo IX excommunicated the Patriarch of Constantinople. This was the final stroke which led to the Schism between the Eastern and Western Churches. Michael Cerullarios, Patriarch of Constantinople 1043-1059, convened Universal Council, condemning the Latins as heretics But this was not the Emperor’s quarrel. The real problems with the Latins (=Western Catholics) began with the sack of Constantinople by the Ivth Crusade in 1204.

49 A semi-precious red stone.

50 During the reign of Vladimir Monomakh the Grand Prince of Kiev was neither an avtokrator not Tsar.

51 The author of the tale mixes up two schisms. In the 9th century Pope Formosus had a quarrel with Patriarch Photius, and this led to a temporary East-West schism; here the Skazanie speaks of the 1054 schism.

52 Илларие is a corrupution of the Greek Kerullarios (Cerullarios).

53 In later anti-Catholic tracts the western church was accused of tampering with the Creed, which is why it is paraphrased here.

54 6830=1322. Batyi († 1246) was a Tatar Khan (grandson of Genghis Khan) who started the Tatar-Mongol conquest of Eastern Europe. He invaded Russia in 1237.

55 Vitenis, GP of Lithuania 1293-1315.

56 Zhemaitia, area in West Lithiania

57 Pejorative diminutive of Gedimin, GP of Lithuania. The entire passage is meant to demonstrate the low birth of the Lithuanian princes.

58 This paraphrases the story of the evil roots of Sviatopolk, the killer of Saints Boris and Gleb. Like Sviatopolk, the princes of Lithuania are the children of a woman who was taken by force by a second husband. In reality Gedimyn was the younger brother of Viten. Gedimyn did have seven sons, though not as listed by the Skazanie: Montvit, Keistut, Koriat, Liubart, Narimont, Olgerd, Evnuti. Svidrigailo was the son of Olgerd, not of Gedimin. The negative attitude of the writer towards the Lithuanian royalty is emphasiezed by the use of the pejorative diminutive for all the names.

59 1227. The date is wrong.

60 Iurii Danilovich gained supremacy over Tver with the help of Khans and married the sister of Khan Uzbek. Prince of Moscow 1303-25; GP 1319-22. He was killed at the Horde by Dmitrii, the son of the GP of Tver.

61 The Tale skirts round the thorny issue of the relations between the rulers of Russia and the Horde. I.e. the princes of Tver and Moscow both wanted the yarlyk for the Grand Principality, which was in the grant of the Khan.

62 Grand Prince of Tver from ~ 1285. In 1305 he was granted the Grand Principality, but was murdered in the Horde ca. 1318 (Iurii Danilovich succeeded him). He was canonised.

63 Mikhail of Chernigov was killed in the Horde in 1246. He was canonised in the 15th century, and became one of the patron saints of the Grand Princes of Moscow.

64 Eastern peoples, descendants of Ishmael, son of Abraham, who was grandson of Shem.

65 I.e the Mongol taxes

66 This gives a rather different view of Gedymin than that given above.

67 =1351.

68 This is a mistake both in the name and the date. Simeon Ivanovich was Grand Prince of Vladimir and Moscow from 1341 to 1353

69 Gedymin died in 1340 or 41.

70 Tatars

71 Another mistake in the chronolgy. Ivan Danilovich, nicknamed Kalita (Moneybags) was GP from 1326 until his death in 1340/1. In 1351 he was long dead.

72 A religious explanation for a secular event.

73 Olgerd was Grand Prince of Lithuania until 1377.

74 Meaning that he attacked lands belonging to Novgorod.

75 Today Vilnius. Actually Svidrigailo and Kestut deposed Evnut, who went over to the Moscow prince.

76 Поприще in modern Russian means ‘walk of life’. Here it is a measure of distance, just under 2 km.

77 Kestut was killed not by Svidrigailo, but by Iagailo.

78 Grand Prince of Lithuania 1392-1430.

79 Who was actually long-dead.

80 Unlike Noah.

81 I.e he wanted to ransom them

82 In 1349 Olgerd had sent an embassy headed by his brother Koriat (Koriada), hoping for an alliance with the Khan of the Golden Horde against Moscow. Instead the Khan handed over the embassy to Simeon.

83 Iuliania was Olgerd's second wife. Note the stress on the participation of the GP of Moscow and the Metropolitan in the decision.

84 Principalities which were the gift of the Grand Prince.

85 Of Kiev

86 It was the custom of rulers to become tonsured as monks just before death, because the monastic state was considered most pleasing to God.

87 I.e. became a Roman Catholic

88 Iagailo was Gran Prince of Lithuania between 1377 and 1392 (with interruptions). In 1386 he adopted Christianity. In 1392 he was made King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. † 1434.

89 Tatar Khan, † 1380.

90 =made a treaty

91 Fominsk was a XIVth century appanage principality, belonging to the Grand Princes of Moscow.





Не так уж плохо, когда мужу от жены надо только одно, — плохо, когда ему от нее ничего не надо. Константин Мелихан
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