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Теоретический материал I. Grammar Косвенная речь - страница №1/1

Модуль 9

Цель

1) Грамматика (Reported Speech - statements);

2) Чтение (установление соответствия приведенных утверждений прочитанному тексту);

3) Лексика (словообразование).


Теоретический материал

I. Grammar

Косвенная речь – передача чьих-либо слов от третьего лица. В косвенной речи мы можем передавать как утверждения, так и вопросы, команды и предложения. Для того, чтобы переделать прямую речь в косвенную мы:

1) открываем кавычки и используя глаголы tell или say вводим то, что было в кавычках: He said, “I feel sick”. – He said (that) he felt sick.



!!! Разница употребления глаголов say и tell:

say something; say to somebody; say that

tell somebody that; tell somebody about something

Но существует ряд устойчивых выражений с say и tell



2) Личные и притяжательные местоимения изменяем в соответствии с контекстом:



3) Наречия и указательные местоимения будут меняться следующим образом:



4) Если слово, вводящее прямую речь (say, tell) стоит в Past, то предложение подчиняется правилу согласованию времен:



5) Времена Past Continuous и Past Perfect не изменяются.





6) Время не меняется, если говорим о всем известной правде, законе природы и о том, что верно на сегодняшний день:





7) Когда слово, вводящее прямую речь, стоит в Present, Future, Present Perfect,то глагол не меняет временную форму:





II. Reading.

Теорию смотрите в модуле 1.

III. Word formation

Как выполнить задания на словообразование:

1) попытайтесь определить, какая часть речи нужна, чтобы заполнить пропуск (им. сущ., им. прилагательное, глагол и т.д.);

2) вспомните суффиксы, характерные для данной части речи (например, для им. сущ. – ment, - ness, - ism; для глагола –ise, -ify, -en; для им. прилагательного – ful, -al, -ous).

3) Определите по контексту, имеет ли слово положительное или отрицательное значение.

4) Иногда правила словообразования не дают ожидаемого результата – слова звучат неестественно и вы уверены, что видите или слышите их в первый раз (например, steal – stealer, speech – speecher). Это значит, что вы просто должны знать ту форму, которая вам нужна в данном случае.



(Материал взят из книги State Exam Maximiser. Английский язык. Подготовка к экзаменам. Е.Н. Соловова, И.Е. Солокова. Pearson Education, Ltd 2007.)
Tasks.

I. Grammar

Ex. 1. Fill in “tell” or “say” in the correct form.



Ex.2. Report what the Jones family said when they came home from their holiday.



Ex. 3. People made these statements. Make different reports for different situations.

1. Norman said: “Rosa, I love you.”

Later, Rosa said to her sister: Norman said that …..

2. Jenny said: “I like your paintings, Peter.”

Later, Jenny said to a friend: I said to Peter that ….

3. Anna said: “You can rely on me, Tom.”

Later, Tom said to his brother: Ann said that…

4. Susan said: “Jane, your mother has been very kind.”

Later, Jane said to her mother: Susan said that…

5. Mary said: “Jenny is staying with me, Peter.”

Later, Peter said to Jenny: Mary said that….

6. Christina said: “I`ll help you with your homework, Angela.”

Later, Christina said to a friend: I said to Angela that….

7. The teacher said: “Class! You`re making too mush noise.”

Later, the pupils said to their parents: The teacher said that ….

8. Mark said: “John may come to your party, Andrew.”

Later, Andrew said to John: Mark said that….

II. Reading.

Read the text and decide for each sentence numbered 1-10 whether it is true, false or the information is not given in the text.

A short History of Mexico city

Although the central region of Mexico`s high plateau has been inhabited for at least 20,000 years, Mexico City only dates back to the 14th century. The Aztecs, or Mexica, had reached this area in the previous century, eventually settling on an island in Lake Texcoco. Here, in 1325, the city of Tenochtitlan began to take shape.

The lake was shallow, and during the nearly 200 years until 1519, the Aztecs expanded inhabited area by land refill and the creation of artificial islands. Canals were dug for the transportation of goods and people. Aqueducts were constructed to bring drinking water from natural springs outside the city, dams to protect it against floods, and causeways and bridges to connect the city with the shore. There were many houses, palaces, temples, squares, markets and even a zoo. Perhaps the most striking construction of this period is the Templo Mayor, a double pyramid which still survives. As the capital of an empire stretching from Texas to Honduras, Tenochtitlan was a magnificent and important city. When the Spanish arrived, they called it the “Venice of the New World”.

The Spanish began their conquest of Mexico in 1519 and came close to Tenochtitlan the same year. In 1521, they took control of it, after fierce fighting that destroyed most of the city. A new capital, with a new name, was built on the ruins, using Spanish architectural styles. One part of the lake was filled in to join the island to the shore, and Mexico City became the capital of the wealthiest colony on the Americas, the center of trade between Spain and China.

By the beginning of the 17th century, it was a busy, lively city, with some residents leading a splendid and luxurious way of life. Not everything went well, though: heavy rain in 1629 caused a great deal of destruction, in which many people died, and thousands lost their homes. A large part of the city had to be rebuilt. For much of the century, the residents suffered from social and economic pressures, including serious food shortages, which erupted in riots in 1692.

In the 18th century, too, many new buildings were constructed. It was a prosperous period, when the new aristocracy paid for splendid buildings, banquets and balls, not to mention the latest fashions from Europe.

The rise of Napoleon in the early 19th century led to political changes throughout Europe. An uprising took place in Mexico in 1810, with the aim of ending the rule from Spain. This goal was finally achieved in 1821, when Mexico City briefly became the capital of the Mexican Empire. Since 1823, it has been the capital of the Republic of Mexico, apart from a short period, from 1863 to 1867, when the country was again an empire.



In the first few decades of the 20th century, plans were drawn up for the urbanization of Mexico City; slum-clearance and housing development programmes were introduced, and factories spread through the city. During the 20th century, the population grew fast, and the city is now one of the largest in the world. It has changed a great deal since it was founded nearly 700 years ago.




False

True

No Information

1. Mexico City and the central region of the high plateau have been inhabited for the same length of time.










2. The Aztecs generally preferred to live on islands.










3. The area where people lived was artificially increased between 1325 and 1519.










4. The Spanish had heard of Tenochtitlan before they reached Mexico.










5. The Aztecs inhabitants of Tenochtitlan left when the city was conquered.










6. Rain destroyed the whole of Mexico City in 1692.










7. In the 18th century, some residents of Mexico City bought European goods.










8. Spanish rule of Mexico ended in 1810.










9. Since 1823, Mexico has always been a republic.










10. Industrialization of Mexico City took place in the early part of the 20th century.











III. Word formation.

Read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the same line.

The day I ran my first marathon race was a bright,(1)… day.

The sun was shining in a completely(2)… sky. All the other

Runners and I were feeling decidedly(3)….. before the start, and

Were anxious for the race to begin. I had trained for only 2 months before

The race, but I was(4)… that I would finish the race. At last,

We began, and after about 20 minutes I became(5)……. and

had to slow down to a fast walk. I drank a little water, and then began

to climb a short hill. everything seemed fine after that, and I realized how



(6)…. running long distances can be.

I had time to think; how(7)… I was in my life, with all

The things that I had achieved how(8)… I was as I was

Running along the country roads. The last 2 kilometers were the worst.

It became very(9)… - every muscle in my body was telling

me that it was useless to continue, and the road in front of me seemed



(10)….. but I managed to stagger across the finishing line,

and then lay, completely still, on the grass.




Wind

Cloud


Rest
Optimist

Thirst


Relax

Luck


Health
Pain

end




Ключи 8/10

I. Grammar

Ex. 1.

2. Since Darren hates flying, he can`t go to Australia.

3. As I`d spent all my money, I couldn`t go to the concert.

4. Since Martin is away for Christmas, he`ll miss the party.

5. Sarah missed the wedding reception because she fell ill.

6. As it`s the end of term, we`ll play some games.

7. I`ve always dreamt of going to Russia because I studied Russian history at university.

8. Since he really likes Guns`n`Roses, I bought him their latest album for his birthday.

9. He`ll fail his exams because he`s lazy.

10. I was late for work because there was so much traffic.


Ex. 2.

1. such


3. such a

4. so


5. such a

6. so


7. so

8. such a

9. so

10. so


11. such a

12. so
Ex. 3.

2. which

3. whose


4. whose

5. which


6. whose

7. which


8. which

9. which


10. which

11. whose


Ex. 4.

2. where I was staying overnight

3. which is one of Rome`s ancient sites

4. who`d been feeling unwell all day

5. who was standing nearby

6. where it was cooler

7. which was nearby

8. which we were all relieved to hear

9. whose name is David

10. where I studied History


II. Reading

1. b, 2. a, 3.d, 4.a, 5. c, 6. b, 7. d, 8. c, 9. a, 10. d.



III. Writing – 21 балл




Не та красива, у которой хвалят руку или ногу, а та, у кого весь облик не позволит восхищаться отдельными чертами. Сенека
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